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Claude de Jongh 
(Utrecht c. 1600-1663)
PROPERTY FROM THE NORTHBROOK COLLECTIONWith the exception of the Rothschilds, no banking family in Britain can claim a more remarkable history as collectors of pictures than the Barings, whose founder, John Baring, set up as a clothmaker at Exeter in 1717. The financial house of Baring Brothers was founded in 1762 by his son, Francis (1740-1810), who was created a baronet in 1793, and in 1802 purchased the Stratton estate in Hampshire, calling in George Dance the Younger to remodel the existing house. Sir Francis’s architectural taste was neo-classical, but his pictures ranged widely, from Reni’s Ecce Homo (Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum), to canvases from Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery and historical compositions by two west-country painters Northcote and Opie. His interest in portraiture was demonstrated by major commissions to Reynolds, also a Devonian, and to Lawrence. But his predilection was for Dutch pictures of the seventeenth century. He benefited from the dispersal of many continental collections as a result of the wars triggered by the French Revolution, helped not least by a long business association with the banking house of Hope & Co. in Amsterdam. Sir Francis’s collection of Dutch works was arguably the most distinguished of its generation in England, with outstanding holdings of works by Italianate masters, by the major genre painters and by both Cuyp and Rembrandt. Sir Francis was succeeded by his elder son, Sir Thomas Baring, 2nd Bt. (1772-1848): he inherited Stratton and its collection, but sold his father’s Dutch pictures en bloc to the Prince Regent in 1812, so it is in the Royal Collection that Sir Francis’s acuity as a connoisseur in the field must now be experienced. Sir Thomas concentrated instead on buying Italian works, including a substantial group from the Le Brun collection which had been unsuccessfully exhibited for sale in Paris in 1810. He acquired significant pictures by the Carracci and their contemporaries, and earlier pictures such as Antonello da Messina’s Saint Jerome in his Study (fig. 1; London, National Gallery), the Madonna della Tenda by Raphael (Munich, Alte Pinakothek) and Sebastiano del Piombo’s Holy Family with a Donor (fig. 2; London, National Gallery). He also acquired three Claudes, including the magical late Ascanius (Oxford, Ashmolean Museum), five Murillos and van Dyck’s Abbé Scaglia (London, National Gallery). A number of the masterpieces he bought were sold by him in the 1840s. Sir Thomas’s younger brother, Alexander (1774-1848), who in 1835 was created Lord Ashburton, bought the Grange, Northington in 1816, and employed Charles Robert Cockerell to enlarge this already substantial mansion in 1823-5. He was an equally remarkable collector, acquiring numerous Italian pictures, four major Murillos, works by Rubens and van Dyck, as well as a very comprehensive holding of Dutch pictures, including no fewer than five portraits given to Rembrandt and fine examples by such masters as Cuyp, de Hooch, Hobbema, Metsu, the Ostades, Potter, Ruisdael, van de Velde and Wouwerman. The collection was inherited by Ashburton’s son, William, 2nd Lord Ashburton, on whose death in 1864 the pictures in his London residence, Bath House, passed to his widow, Louisa, Lady Ashburton, while those at the Grange were inherited by his brother, Francis, 3rd Lord Ashburton.Where pictures were concerned, the will of Sir Thomas Baring was less conventional than that of his younger brother. His collection did not pass with Stratton to his elder son, Francis, who would be created Lord Northbrook in 1866: Baring had left instructions that it was to be sold. The Dutch and English pictures were sent to Christie’s, fetching a total of £11,776. 1s. While the Italian, French and Spanish works were purchased en bloc at an agreed valuation by Sir Thomas’s second son, Thomas Baring (1799-1873), M.P. for Huntingdon and an active partner in the bank (fig. 3). Thomas Baring had, as his nephew Thomas George, 1st Earl of Northbrook (1826-1904) recorded in the introduction to the catalogue of the collection issued in 1889, begun to collect pictures in 1835: he ‘constantly added’ to his collection until 1871, two years before his death. Although not, like his uncle Ashburton, a trustee of the National Gallery, Baring clearly knew many of the key figures in the art world, and it was on his introduction that Dr. Waagen had access to his father’s collection. An acquisition of 1846 helps to explain why he considered he did not need his father’s Dutch works: in association with the banker, Samuel Loyd Jones, later 1st Lord Overstone, with his partner in the bank, Humphrey Bingham Mildmay, M.P., whose mother was Ashburton’s eldest daughter, and the dealer Chaplin who took the pictures they did not wish to keep, Baring bought the substantial collection of pictures formed by the diplomat Baron Jan Gijsbert Verstolk van Soelen (1776-1845) for £26,231. He himself retained forty-three pictures at a cost of £12,472, including for example the distinguished Wouwerman (lot ) and the exceptional Asselijn (lot ). Individual pictures were carefully selected from distinguished collections in England, including those of Lord Charles Townshend (the van der Cappelle, lot ) and George Percy, 2nd Earl of Beverley (van Goyen, lot ). He also went to leading dealers of the time such as Nieuwenhuys and Chaplin, buying from the former the refined Frans van Mieris (lot ), in 1850, when he secured a work by the artist’s son from the latter. His Dutch pictures, including those catalogued below, constituted the core of Thomas Baring’s collection. He clearly had a close knowledge and understanding of the great Dutch masters which matched that of his grandfather and uncle. That his taste was sharpened by a sense of dynastic piety is suggested by his recovery of three pictures his father had sold, the Antonello, a Madonna then given to Bellini and the Sebastiano from the Brighton collector, William Coningham; at the same time, he bought another signal masterpiece, Mantegna’s Agony in the Garden (London, National Gallery). The sale of King Louis-Phillipe I’s collection at Christie’s in 1853 enabled Baring to complement the fine Ribera bought from his father’s collection with pictures by Cano, Coello, Morales and Murillo. Later individual acquisitions included the Saint Giles and the Hind by the Master of St. Giles and a portrait by Petrus Christus, secured in 1854 and 1863 respectively (both, London, National Gallery).Thomas Baring left the collection to his nephew, Thomas George, 2nd Lord Northbrook (1826-1904), who served as Viceroy of India in 1872-6 and was elevated as 1st Earl of Northbrook in 1876. As Viceroy, Northbrook was an understanding patron to Edward Lear, and he clearly took a serious interest in the collection. Conscious perhaps of his family’s long association with the city, he bought Claude de Jongh’s view of Old London Bridge in 1878; and added two masterpieces to the collection, receiving by exchange from the Earl of Portarlington in 1881 van Dyck’s celebrated portrait of Queen Henrietta Maria with her dwarf (Washington, National Gallery of Art) and his Earl of Newport (New Haven, Yale Center for British Art). Weale and Richter’s monumental catalogue of 1889 marked the zenith of the collection. Baring incurred heavy debts in South America in the early 1890s: Lord Northbrook, although not active in the bank, contributed no less than £250,000 to settle these, and as a result had to sell several of the greatest treasures of the collection, including the Antonello, the Mantegna and the Sebastiano del Piombo, all of which were acquired by the National Gallery, as well as the Christus, which would pass to it with the collection of George Salting. The 1st Earl died in 1904 and was succeeded by Francis George, 2nd Earl of Northbrook, on whose death in 1929 the collection was inherited by his cousin, Francis Arthur, 4th Lord Northbrook.
Claude de Jongh (Utrecht c. 1600-1663)

Old London Bridge

Details
Claude de Jongh
(Utrecht c. 1600-1663)
Old London Bridge
signed and dated 'C.d. Jonghe / 1650.' (lower left, on the wall)
oil on panel, unframed
17 1/8 x 40 in. (43.4 x 101.5 cm.)
Provenance
Wynn Ellis (1790-1875), London; his sale (†), Christie's, London, 27 May 1876, lot 17 (500 gns. to Agnews).
John Heugh, Upper Brook Street, London; his sale, Christie’s, London, 11 May 1878, lot 252, erroneously catalogued as 'signed and dated 1630' (750 gns. to Bentley on behalf of the following).
Thomas George Baring, 1st Earl of Northbrook (1826-1904), and by descent to his son,
Francis George Baring, 2nd Earl of Northbrook (1850-1929), and by inheritance through his cousin,
Francis Arthur Baring, 4th Lord Northbrook (1882-1947).
Literature
W.H. James Weale and J.P. Richter, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of the Pictures Belonging to the Earl of Northbrook, London, 1889, p. 41, no. 49.
Dr. A. von Wurzbach, Niederländisches Künstler-Lexikon, Leipzig and Vienna, 1904, I, p, 761, incorrectly described as distinct from that sold in the Ellis and Heugh sales.
H.F. Finberg, 'Canaletto in England', Walpole Society, IX, 1920-1921, p. 48, incorrectly described as distinct from that sold in the Ellis and Heugh sales.
H. Gerson, Ausbreitung und Nachwirkung der Holländischen Malerei des 17.Jahrhunderts, Haarlem, 1942, p. 400.
J. Hayes. 'Claude de Jongh', The Burlington Magazine, XCVIII, 1956, p. 11.
C.M. Kauffmann, Victoria and Albert Museum: Catalogue of Foreign Paintings Before 1800, London, 1973, I, p. 161, under no. 197.
Exhibited
London, Whitechapel Art Gallery, Old London, 1 November-10 December 1911, no. 46.
Winchester, Winchester College, Catalogue of an exhibition of pictures from Hampshire houses, 23 June-13 July, 1938, no. 63.
London, Barbican Art Gallery, The Image of London, 6 August-18 October 1987, no. 5.
Sale Room Notice
Please note that this painting is being sold unframed and not as displayed on view.

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Clementine Sinclair Head of Evening Sale

Lot Essay

‘His [de Jongh’s] London views are far and away the most distinguished before those of Canaletto’
(John Hayes, 1956)
This superb panoramic view of Old London Bridge by Claude de Jongh is a rare contemporary record of the first stone bridge across the River Thames, and the only thoroughfare over the water until Westminster Bridge opened in 1750. In the variety and splendour of its buildings, Old London Bridge rivalled the Ponte Vecchio in Florence and the Pont au-Change in Paris. De Jongh was active as a landscape painter in both Utrecht and Haarlem, however, it is his paintings of London, which were based on topographical drawings executed during short sketching tours in England, that are considered his finest works and his most significant achievements as an artist. The composition of this painting relates to what is widely considered to be de Jongh’s masterpiece – his monumental View of Old London Bridge in the Iveagh Bequest at Kenwood, which is signed and dated 1630 (fig. 1). The present painting is one of only two renditions of the subject by de Jongh to remain in private hands. Two further variants are in the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, and in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. In each instance, working from his original pen drawing of 1627 (fig. 2; London, Guildhall Library), de Jongh approached the subject afresh, varying the tone, sky and overall atmosphere of the painting, reflecting the latest developments in Dutch landscape painting.
The earliest mention of de Jongh occurs in 1627, when he is recorded as a member of in the Painters’ Guild at Utrecht. He worked in Haarlem for a short but crucial period, in the years around 1630, when a new style of landscape painting was being developed under the influence of Esaias van de Velde, before returning to Utrecht where he is believed to have practiced until his death in 1663. His activity in England is documented through his topographical drawings, which indicate that he made several short sketching tours in search of popular subjects and motifs suitable for working up later as paintings: the earliest dated drawing, of 1615, depicts St Augustine’s Monastery, Canterbury (Utrecht, Central Museum); with sketches of Westminster from 1625 (The Royal Collection, Windsor Castle); a panoramic drawing of Old London Bridge spread over two sheets dated 1627 (London, Guildhall Library), which formed the basis for this painting; and further sheets dated 1628. Other surviving oils worked up from his drawings include two views of the Thames at Westminster in the Yale Center for British Art. De Jongh’s views of London are important topographically, since they bridge the gap between Claes Visscher’s panoramic engraved view of London from the south bank of the Thames, first published in 1616 (fig. 3), and the drawings and prints of Wenceslaus Hollar, who died in London in 1677.
In his account of The Thames about 1750, Hugo Phillips described Old London bridge as: 'that beautiful old relic...unquestionably the most picturesque and romantic feature of early London...with overhanging houses supported on brackets - a veritable street upon the water' (London, 1951, pp. 31 and 49). It was commissioned by King Henry II after the murder of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, and had a chapel at its centre dedicated to Becket, which became the official starting point of pilgrimage to his Canterbury shrine. Begun in 1176, under the supervision of architect Peter, Chaplain of St Mary Colechurch, its appearance evolved over the centuries. As fires swept across the bridge (the most serious in 1212, 1633 and 1725), the buildings were consequently re-modelled in the current architectural style. In 1666, the houses on London Bridge were saved from the Great Fire because an earlier fire of 1633 had destroyed the houses near the north bank, creating a fire-break. The bridge was 8 meters wide and about 255 meters long, supported by 19 irregularly spaced arches. By the Tudor period, it supported around 200 buildings, some of which stood seven storeys high, while others overhung the river by up to two meters.
From north (left) to south (right), the painting incorporates: The Tower of London; the tower of St. Magnus; the bridge with Nonesuch House (a five storey Renaissance building imported from Holland in 1577) featured prominently at its centre, immediately followed by the drawbridge (which was inserted to accommodate Nonesuch House and had the added benefit of increasing the City of London’s defences and allowing larger vessels access to the upper part of the Thames for the first time in hundreds of years); Southwark Gate (where the heads of traitors were exhibited on spikes until 1660, including William Wallace in 1305, Thomas More in 1535 and Thomas Cromwell in 1540) is obscured from view; but the tower of St. Olave’s Southwark; and Southwark Cathedral are clearly visible on the south bank. Southwark Cathedral does not feature in either the 1627 pen drawing, or two early paintings at Kenwood (dated 1630) and Yale (dated 1632), but is introduced here and in the variant in the Victoria & Albert Museum (dated 1650).
De Jongh employed a degree of artistic licence in the original pen drawing, which was clearly always intended to serve as a design for paintings, rather than to be used by an engraver of maps or prospects: for example, the arches under the bridge are shown as being rounded and fairly regular in character, whereas in reality they were pointed and uneven both in height and width. Further artistic liberties were taken in the finished painting to increase its overall pictorial effect: namely, the drawbridge is moved from the 7th to the 9th arch, which balances the composition and has the added advantage of centralising the magnificent building of Nonesuch House. De Jongh also introduced a building in the left foreground of the painting to frame the composition and increase the illusion of depth. It is clear that de Jongh was still working from the same 1627 drawing in the later renditions of the subject, here and in the Victoria & Albert Museum, without further reference to the actual site, since they contain the block of houses on the north side of the bridge that was destroyed in the fire of February 1633. In his 1956 Burlington Magazine article, Hayes suggested that these inaccuracies not only suggested that de Jongh’s aims were primarily pictorial, rather than topographical, but also indicated that his patrons were not English, but Dutch, for whom ‘the suggestion of picturesque qualities or interesting historical associations was sufficient’ (op. cit., p. 7). Hollar’s productions for the English market, by contrast, tended to possess a greater fidelity to detail.
De Jongh imbued his painting with a silvery tone and atmosphere, which show the impact of the work of his Dutch contemporaries, notably Jan van Goyen. Hayes commented that de Jongh ‘brought with him a feeling for atmosphere and for the grey skies of the north which hint at his Haarlem origins, and that were equalled by few of the later Anglo-Dutch painters’ (ibid., p. 3). In his earliest painting of the subject in oil, the picture now at Kenwood, de Jongh employed a cooler, more monochromatic palette, with strongly defined reflections of the bridge and buildings in the glassy still waters of the Thames. The clouds are thick and heavy, and hang low in the sky. In this later rendition, the palette is more luminous and varied, and the reflections of the bridge and buildings have been softened. The clouds, which are lighter and more feathery, appear to dance across the sky and are reflected in the shimmering waters below, enlivening the whole composition. These changes echo stylistic developments in the work of Jan van Goyen, especially in the move from a monochromatic to a more luminous palette.
By the eighteenth century Old London Bridge was acting more like a dam than a modern bridge, and the pent up current roaring through the narrow spaces was gradually tearing up the river bed and making the structure unstable. Between 1758 and 1762, work began to remove its houses and enlarge its central arch. The debate surrounding the bridge's future sparked an artistic response, as painters set about preserving a record of this picturesque old relic. Canaletto, who was in London during this period (1746-1755), made a pen and ink and wash drawing of the bridge in the 1750s (British Museum, London), while Samuel Scott executed eleven paintings of the bridge from 1747 (R. Kingzett, 'A Catalogue of the works of Samuel Scott', The Walpole Society, XXXXVIII, 1982, pp. 43-48, A-K). Despite extensive attempts to preserve the bridge, however, it was eventually demolished in 1831. This painting constitutes an important historic document by an artist who achieved a place both in the history of English topographical art and of Dutch landscape painting.
Wynn Ellis (1790-1875), who owned this painting before it entered the Northbrook collection, was an entrepreneurial silk merchant, politician and collector. He amassed a sizable collection of pictures, totalling 402 Old Masters, which he left to the nation on his death in 1875. The Trustees of the National Gallery selected 44 works, predominantly by seventeenth century Dutch artists, including Ruisdael, Jan van de Cappelle, Willem van der Velde and Jan van der Heyden, which considerably strengthened this area of the Collection. The remainder of the Old Masters, together with his modern pictures, watercolours, porcelain, furniture and decorative arts were sold at Christie’s in a five day sale in 1876. The sale included other notable paintings, including Gainsborough’s portrait of Georgina, Duchess of Devonshire, which was bought by Agnews for the staggering sum of £10,605 (Derbyshire, Chatsworth).

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