CROOKE, Helkiah (1576-1635). Microcosmographia [In Greek]. A Description of the Body of Man. Together with the controversies thereto belonging. Collected and translated out of all the best authors of anatomy especially out of Gasper Bauhinus and Andreas Laurentius. London: William Jaggard, 1615. 2o (330 x 212 mm). Woodcut vignettes on title and numerous woodcut illustrations in text. (Short tear to blank margin of title repaired, a few margins repaired, affecting some shoulder notes.) Contemporary calf, covers with a central gilt coat-of-arms of Philip Stanhope, Second Earl of Chesterfield (rebacked, corners skillfully repaired). Provenance: Philip Stanhope, Second Earl of Chesterfield (coat-of-arms on binding); Ira M. Rutkow (pencil signature on rear flyleaf). FIRST EDITION, FIRST ISSUE, with imprint dated 1615, version with integral title-leaf showing the place of printing. Crooke's work was the first truly comprehensive treatise on anatomy in English, and the first anatomical work produced in England or in English since John Banester's Historie of Man (1578). Crooke took his text primarily from Gaspard Bauhin's Theatrum Anatomicum (1605), but also relied on the works of du Laurens, Vesalius, Casserio, Paaw and other Continental anatomists. His illustrations, taken from Vesalius via Bauhin, represent the last notable use of the Vesalian illustrations in an English anatomical text. Since English medicine in the 16th and 17th centuries tended to lag behind medicine in Europe, especially in the area of anatomy, Crooke's Mikrokosmographia, which drew on European sources, represented a significant contribution to English knowledge of anatomy as it had developed on the Continent. The publication of Crooke's work was marked by controversy: the Bishop of London appealed to the College of Physicians to suppress the book on account of its "indecent" chapters on reproductive anatomy and the generation of children, and the College was further offended by Crooke's introduction, in which he called the lowly class of surgeons "Members of the Physitians Commonwealth," and indiscreetly implied that a surgeon's knowledge of anatomy was likely to be better than that of a physician. Efforts to amend Crooke's text came to nothing, however, and the text and illustrations of Mikrokosmographia were published in their original form, the title-page even displaying a nude male and pregnant female figure in (perhaps) defiance of the College, or perhaps just to stimulate sales. STC 6062 (stating that some copies of the 1615 issue with cancel leaf may have an unsigned bifolium with "The Contents ..." on one recto and verses by A. Fisher on the other; this bifolium is present in the Edell copy, which has the integral title-leaf). Cushing C-486; Heirs of Hippocrates 405; O'Malley, "Helkiah Crooke, M.D., F. R. C. P, 1576-1648," Bull. Hist. Med. 42 (1968): 1-18; Russell 218 (calling for only 10 preliminary leaves); Wellcome 1683.