The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph-Michele Montgolfier (1740-1810) and Jacques Étienne Montgolfier (1745-99) were inventors of the hot-air balloon. Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician best known for his invention of the barometer. Cornelius Jacobszoon Drebbel (1572-1633) was a Dutch inventor who produced the first navigable submarine in England in 1620. He also contributed to the development of measurement and control systems, optics and chemistry. Roger Bacon (c.1214-1294), an English philosopher, Franciscan Friar and scientist is credited with the discovery of the manufacture of gunpowder. Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695), was a Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist, horologist and writer of early science fiction. Arnaud de Villeneuve (1235-1311) was an alchemist, astrologer and physician. Jacques de Vaucanson (1709-1782) was a French inventor who is credited with making the world's first robots as well as making the first completely automated loom. Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) was an English potter and great entrepreneur who industrialised the manufacture of pottery, and he was the grandfather of Charles Darwin.