Jacques-André-Joseph-Camelot Aved (Douai 1702-1766 Paris)
Jacques-André-Joseph-Camelot Aved (Douai 1702-1766 Paris)

The Marquise de Sainte-Maure d'Origny, full-length, as a Sultana

Jacques-André-Joseph-Camelot Aved (Douai 1702-1766 Paris)
The Marquise de Sainte-Maure d'Origny, full-length, as a Sultana
signed and dated 'J. Aved 1743' (lower right, on the base of the pedestal)
oil on canvas
95 x 64 ½ in. (241.3 x 163.8 cm.)
(Possibly) painted for King Louis XV of France, 1743.
Clément-Charles de Barbeyrac, Marquis de Saint-Maurice Montcalm de Gozou (1860-1921), Hôtel Pozzo di Sorgo (former Hôtel de Soyécourt), rue de l‘Université, Paris, by 1922.
Private collection, since 1927.
Abbé Desfontaines, 'Exposition des peintures, sculptures et gravures', Observatons sur les écrits des modernes, 1743 (Collection Deloynes, BibLiothèque Nationale, Paris: XLVII, pièce 1907, msp. 300).
P. Rémy, 'Avant-propos', Catalogue raisonné des tableaux de différens bons maîtres des trois écoles...qui composent le Cabinet de feu M. Aved..., Paris, 1766, p. vi.
Eloge historique de M. A ved, peintre du Roi, n.d. (Collection Deloynes, cited above: LXI, pièce 1905, msp. 22).
A. Boppe, 'La mode des portraits turcs', La Revue de l'Art Ancien et Moderne, 66, September 1902, p. 211, n. 3.
A. Boppe, 'Les ‘Peintres de Turcs au XVIIIe siècle', Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 3e pér.,XXXIV, 579, September 1905, p. 223.
J.-L. Vaudoyer, 'L’Orientalisme en Europe au XVIIIe siècle', Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 4e pér., VI, 650, August 1911, pp. 101-102.
G. Wildenstein, Le Peintre Aved, Paris, 1922, II, p. 124, no. 96; I, pp. 64-65; II, p. 183.
P. Claude, 'Un grand réaliste: Jacques Aved', La Renaissance de l'Art Français et des Industries de Luxe, V, 6, June 1922, pp. 375, 378.
S. Rocheblave, La Peinture française au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 1937, pp. 19-20.
G. Wildenstein, La Peinture française au XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 1937, fig. 34.
French XVIIIth Century Paintings, New York, 1948, no. 1.
G. de Lastic Saint-Jal, 'La Vie des Musées: Musée d’Auxerre', La Revue des Arts, 1955, no. 4, p. 245.
F. Fosca, La Vie, les voyages et les oeuvres de Jean-Etienne Liotard, citoyen de Genève, dit le Peintre turc, Lausanne, 1956, p. 31.
J. Watelet, ‘L’Orient dans l’art français 1650-1800', Etudes d’Art, Algiers, 1959, no. 14, pp. 89-90.
F. Boucher, Histoire du costume en Occident de l’antiquité à nos jours, Paris, 1965, p. 309, fig. 761.
C. Constans, 'Aved (Jacques)', Petit Larousse de la peinture, Paris, 1979, I, p. 101.
M. Lespes, Catalogue des oeuvres du peintre Jacques Aved (unpublished thesis, Université de Montpellier), 1985.
M. Lespes, 'Aved, Jacques (-André-Joseph)' in The Dictionary of Art, London, 1996, II, p. 851.
P. Stein, Exoticism as Metaphor: Turquerie in Eighteenth-Century French Art, (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, New York University), 1997, pp. 154-155, fig. 72.
G.P. Zlatnik, Myth, Vision, and the Harem in French Painting from Fontainebleau through the Nineteenth Century (unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of Iowa), 1998, pp. 100-101.
P. Renard, Jean-Marc Nattier (1685-1766): un artiste parisien à la cour de Louis XV, Saint-Rémy-en-l’Eau, 1999, p. 72.
M. Roland Michel, 'Exoticism and Genre Painting in Eighteenth-Century France', C.B. Bailey, ed., The Age of Watteau, Chardin, and Fragonard: Masterpieces of French Genre Painting, exhibition catalogue, New Haven and London, 2003, pp. 108-109, fig. 69.
P. Sanchez, Dictionnaire des artistes exposant dans les Salons des XVII et XVIIIeme siècles à Paris et en province, 1673-1800, Dijon, 2004, I, p. 106, n. 290.
The Arts of France from François Ier to Napoléon Ier: A Centennial Celebration of Wildenstein's Presence in New York, New York, 2005-2006, pp. 193-195, no. 69.
R.M. Hoisington, Maurice-Quentin de La Tour and the Triumph of Pastel Painting in Eighteenth-Century France (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, New York University), 2006, pp. 91-92, n. 51.
N. Trauth, Maske und Person: Orientalismus im Porträt des Barock, Berlin and Munich, 2009, p. 333, no. 10; pp. 45, 53, 82 n. 134, fig. 12.
H. Williams, Turquerie. An Eighteenth-Century European Fantasy, London, 2014, pp. 94-95, fig. 115.
Paris, Salon, 1743, no. 73.
Paris, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Exposition de la turquerie au XVIIIe siècle, May-October 1911, no. 19.
Paris, Galerie Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Le Siècle de Louis XV vu par les artistes, 1934, no. 140
Copenhagen, Palais de Charlottenborg, Exposition de l’art français au XVIIIe siècle, 25 August-6 October 1935, no. 3.
Versailles, Château de Versailles, Deux siècles de l’histoire de France (1589-1789), June-October 1937, no. 223.
Geneva, Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, De Watteau à Cézanne, 7 July-30 September 1951, no. 1.

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Lot Essay

This portrait historié, whose rich and beautifully preserved impasto reveals Aved's masterly technique, is an outstanding example of Turquerie in 18th-century French painting. Shown full-length and striking an elegant, almost nonchalant pose, the Marquise de Sainte-Maure leans against the stone pedestal of a large garden vase from which descend the intertwined tendrils of a nasturtium. In the distance, behind a grove of trees, the dome and slender minarets of a mosque rise into the lowering sky. Though her crossed-legged pose – which presages the Grand Manner compositions of Pompeo Batoni and Joshua Reynolds – conveys a relaxed sensibility, the Marquise's sumptuous costume is anything but. Her blue and white silk robe is tucked into a multicolored sash tied at the waist and adorned with shimmering tassels, while a diaphanous pink-and-white striped caftan peeks out from underneath. The heavy, short-sleeved pelisse (“kurdi”, in Turkish) that she wears atop all this billowing silk and satin is made with silver brocade and lined with sable, and her turban is ornamented with a tuft of dark blue feathers. The whole exotic attire is decorated with pearls of various sizes, some of which hold the coiffure in place and are strung into a torsade around the long braid of powdered hair that falls over the Marquise's shoulder, while others appear at the edge of the bodice and cuffs of the undergarment. In her right hand the Marquise clutches a large silk handkerchief fringed with gold, while on her feet she wears a pair of babouches, or Turkish slippers, probably made of soft leather.

The bouquet of orange blossoms in Madame de Sainte-Maure's left hand suggest that the portrait may have been intended to commemorate her 1739 marriage to Louis II de Saint-Maure, Seigneur d'Origny et de La Tour-du-Pré, called the Marquis de Saint-Maure. As a military officer, Saint-Maure seved in the regiment of the Royal-Étranger during the War of Polish Succession (1733-1738). The couple had one child, Louis Marie Cécile.

The present work, which dates to 1743, reflects the recent vogue for portraits à la Turque in French aristocratic circles. Indeed, just the year before, Aved had painted a full-length portrait of the Turkish ambassador to the court of France, Mehmed Saïd Efendi (fig. 1; Musée national du Château de Versailles) for Louis XV. Efendi – witty, cultivated, and French-speaking – was hugely popular during his visit to France in 1742, and earned the rare privilege of an audience with the king in the Galerie des Glaces at Versailles. Efendi's popularity resulted in a surge in à la Turque portraiture in the following years, and Aved himself executed several commissions in this style. As the present painting and the portrait of Efendi are thematically related and of identical proportions, one wonders if the Marquise may have been painted to serve as a pendant to the portrait of the Turkish ambassador. Indeed a costume identical to that worn here by the Marquise is found in a roundel portrait of a woman identified as Louis XV's mistress, Pauline Félicité de Mailly, Comtesse de Vintimille, and when exhibited at the Salon of the Académie Royale in 1743, the present painting was described as depicting the Marquise in “le Jardin du Sérail”, or “the garden of the seraglio”, which housed the sequestered living quarters of wives and concubines in an Ottoman household.

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