Juan Gris (1887-1927)
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胡安·格里斯 (1887-1927)

《綠桌布》

細節
胡安·格里斯 (1887-1927)
《綠桌布》
簽名及日期:Juan Gris 25(左下)
油彩 畫布
28 3/4 x 36 1/4 吋(73.1 x 92.1公分)
1925年4月至6月作
來源
巴黎西蒙(丹尼爾·亨利·康威勒)畫廊(購自藝術家本人)
巴黎格特魯德·斯坦因(1925年6月購自上述收藏)
巴黎格特魯德·斯坦因遺產(1946年)
紐約現代藝術博物館集團(1968年購自上述收藏)
已故藏家於1968年12月購自上述收藏
出版
《Cahiers d’Art》,1926年,第149頁,編號6(插圖)
D. Gallup編《The Flowers of Friendship: Letters Written to Gertrude Stein》,紐約,1953年,第175至177頁
(可能)D. Copper著《Letters of Juan Gris》,倫敦,1956年,第171至172頁,書信編號CCIV
J.A. Gaya-Nuño著《Juan Gris》,波士頓,1975年,第249頁(插圖,第231頁,圖515)
D. Cooper著《Juan Gris: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint》,第2冊,巴黎,1977年,第344頁,編號522(插圖,第345頁)
M.Potter等著《The David and Peggy Rockefeller Collection: European Works of Art》,第1冊,紐約,1984年 ,第282頁,編號110(插圖;於大衛·洛克菲勒大通曼哈頓銀行的辦公室現場圖,第61頁;1925年5月作)
C. Green著《Juan Gris》,紐黑文,1992年,第98及109頁
C.S. Eliel著「L'Esprit Nouveau: Purism in Paris」展覽目錄 郡立美術館 洛杉磯,2001年,第183頁(於1925年新精神館現場插圖,第63頁;封底內冊再次插圖)
J. Bishop, C. Debray及R. Rabinow編「The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian Avant-Garde」展覽目錄,大都會藝術博物館,紐約,2011年,第175,230,232及404頁,編號72(彩色插圖,第404頁;作品名稱《The Green Cloth》)
D. Cooper著《Juan Gris: Catalogue raisonné de l'oeuvre peint》,第2冊,舊金山,2014年,第783頁,編號522(彩色插圖)
展覽
(可能)1925年夏 「 Exposition international des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes」展覽 新精神館 巴黎
1928年6月 「Rétrospective Juan Gris」展覽 巴黎西蒙(丹尼爾·亨利·康威勒)畫廊 巴黎 編號52
1933年4月「Juan Gris」展覽 美術館 蘇黎世 編號133
1938年6月至7月 「 Juan Gris」展覽 巴萊及卡雷畫廊 巴黎 編號22(插圖)
1938年11月至12月 「Retrospective Loan Exhibition: Juan Gris」展覽 雅克·塞利格曼 公司 紐約 編號23(插圖)
1939年1月 「Retrospective Juan Gris」展覽 藝術俱樂部 芝加哥 編號24
1955年10月至1956年1月 「Juan Gris」展覽 美術館 伯爾尼 編號108(插圖)
1969年9月至11月 「Art in Westchester from Private Collections」展覽 哈德遜河博物館 揚克斯 紐約 編號77(插圖;作品名稱《Nature morte au journal》)
1970年12月至1971年3月 「 Four Americans in Paris: The Collections of Gertrude Stein and Her Family」展覽 現代藝術博物館 紐約 第70及157頁
1971年6月至8月 「Gertrude Stein and Picasso and Juan Gris」展覽 加拿大國立美術館 渥太華 編號45(插圖;於格特魯德·斯坦因家現場圖,圖6)
2005年6月至9月 「Juan Gris: pinturas y dibujos」展覽 普藝雷納索非亞國家博物館 馬德里 第155至156頁,編號137(插圖,第155頁)
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拍品專文

Gertrude Stein had admired and collected Gris’s art for at least a decade when she penned an appreciative text to accompany eighteen reproductions of the painter’s work in the late 1924 edition of Margaret Anderson’s influential Little Review. “Juan Gris is a Spaniard. He says his pictures remind him of the School of Fontainebleau. In this he makes no mistake, but he never does make a mistake...He is a perfect painter, alright, he might be right” (Little Review, Chicago, autumn 1924-winter 1925, p. 16).
The painters of the Second School of Fontainebleau, which flourished during the early decades of the 17th century, were known for the mannerist stylizations—elongated and undulating forms—in their paintings. Gris was indeed correct to detect an affinity in his work with these distant predecessors, as Stein surely would have recognized in Gris’s Le tapis vert, which she purchased, soon after it was completed, from the artist’s dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (Galerie Simon) in June 1925. Stein eventually owned seven Gris paintings in all, three from 1914 and the remainder from 1921-1926.
Le tapis vert is a Cubist still-life, but of a different sort than those Gris, Picasso, and others had painted during the high analytic phase of the movement prior to the First World War. The fundamental planar structures are present, but serve mainly to frame and position within space the amalgam of objects, grouped together at the center of this composition, and as contrast to the irregular contours of the tablecloth. Gris has here declined to analyze form; instead he depicted objects as austere and idealized representations. The artist was in part responding to the neo-classical revival following the First World War, the “return to order.” He nevertheless inflected his forms with inventiveness and idiosyncrasy; his chief interest was to foment a free plasticity, a congenial play among interacting forms, as an expression of visual creativity akin to the sense of fantasy in lyric poetry.
Gris called his method “deductive,” as he wrote in 1923 for the dealer Alfred Flechtheim’s journal Der Querschnitt, “because the pictorial relationships between the colored forms suggest to me certain private relationships between the elements of an imaginary reality...The quality or dimensions of a form or a color suggest to me the appellation or the adjective for the object...If I particularize pictorial relationships to the point of representing objects, it is in order to prevent the combination of colored forms suggesting to [the spectator] a reality which I have not intended...It is not picture ‘X’ which manages to correspond with my subject, but subject ‘X’ which manages to correspond with my picture” (“Notes on my Painting” in D.-H. Kahnweiler, Juan Gris: His Life and Work, New York, 1969, p. 194).
The use of contrasts, in color and form, in conjunction with unexpected dislocations, was key to Gris’s compositional strategy for representing objects in space. The artist purposely skewered the orientation of the still-life arrangement resting on the green table linen in the present painting, tilting it obliquely downward toward the lower right. The compotier with grapes, the dish containing three pears, the musical score, two books (one opened up, the other face down), and the folded copy of Le Journal (its four-pointed shape perhaps alluding to its regular four-page format), all appear poised to slide down the table, which is neither rectangular nor oval, but of an unusual ovoid shape. Although this configuration ostensibly rests on the dark planar trapezoid beneath it, Gris’s still-life seems to resist any expectation of a fixed stability, and floats freely in space.
This calculated pictorial humor in Le tapis vert is all the more remarkable in light of the chronic state of ill health that had beset Gris, beginning in May 1920, but with significant periods of remission. Doctors at first suspected that he had pleurisy, then tuberculosis. Tests later revealed that the painter was anemic and suffering from uremia; Gris eventually succumbed to kidney failure. “The energy and commitment was often there when Gris was a sick man,” Christopher Green observed. “There were intervals of months and even years when Gris seems not to have been sick at all: between early 1922 and 1923, and between early 1924 and late 1925 there is no evidence of illness and much evidence of vigor” (op. cit., 1992, p. 96).
Notwithstanding his increasingly fragile health, Gris’s career by the mid-1920s was in full swing. A major exhibition of his work at Kahnweiler’s Galerie Simon in 1923 was well received. In the following year, the artist added to his growing reputation by delivering a notable lecture at the Sorbonne, Des Possibilités de la Peinture, thereafter published and translated into English, German, and Spanish. Alfred Flechtheim in April 1925 exhibited a selection works painted since 1920 in his Düsseldorf gallery. Later that year the important collectors Alphonse Kann and Dr. G.F. Reber began to acquire Gris’s recent canvases. The artist at long last experienced an enjoyable degree of financial security, and even turned down the offer of a contract from Paul Rosenberg, Picasso’s dealer.
“Gris continued to build edifices of pleasure to the end of his life,” Green has written. “In his last two or three years Gris added to this range of pleasurable still-life pictures which generate rather different connotations. These objects include those that I call objects of subjectivity” (ibid., p. 158). In early 1927, only months before his death, Gris contributed a statement to an anthology of modern painting which Maurice Raynal was preparing. “Today, at the age of forty, I believe I am approaching a new period of self-expression, of pictorial expression, of picture-language; a well-thought-out and well-blended unity. In short, the synthetic period has followed the analytical one” (quoted in D.-H. Kahnweiler, op. cit., 1969, p. 204).
“As a Spaniard he knew Cubism and stepped through into it. He had stepped through it,” Gertrude Stein wrote in her eulogy for Gris. “There was beside this perfection...Four years partly illness and much perfection and rejoining beauty and perfection and then at the end there came a definite creation of something. This is what is to be measured. He made something that is to be measured. And that is that something. Therein Juan Gris is not anything but more than anything. He made the thing. He made the thing to be measured...This is the history of Juan Gris” (“The Life of Juan Gris. The Life and Death of Juan Gris” in Transition, no. 4, July 1927, pp. 160-162).

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