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On Spain’s cession of Louisiana to France
On Spain’s cession of Louisiana to France
On Spain’s cession of Louisiana to France
On Spain’s cession of Louisiana to France
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PROPERTY FROM THE DESCENDANTS OF A. J. TULLOCK
On Spain’s cession of Louisiana to France

WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, 6 MARCH 1803

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On Spain’s cession of Louisiana to France
William Henry Harrison, 6 March 1803
HARRISON, William Henry (1773-1841). Autograph letter signed (“Willm Henry Harrison”) as Governor of the Indiana Territory to Charles (Don Carlos) DeHault Delassus (1764-1846), Lieutenant Governor of Upper Louisiana, Vincennes, 6 March 1803.

Four pages, 251 x 202mm (silked, small marginal chips do not affect text).

“The cession of Louisiana to France is confirmed beyond all doubt”. An important letter from Harrison to Delassus informing him of the transfer of the Spanish territory to France—a move delayed, in Harrison’s opinion, only by the reduced state of the First Consul's finances and his efforts to reconquer Haiti. “More of the circumstances attending the cession are still secret but it is believed, and I think truly, that the Ministry of Spain were much deceived and imposed upon by Beunaparte.” Not even the Spanish King was cognizant of the transaction: “After the treaty was actually signed he was heard to tell Lucien Beunaparte [sic] that Spain would never give up Louisiana and that France had nothing to offer which would prove an equivalent for that province.” Machinations in Europe notwithstanding, the United States stood on the brink of war with Spain over the closing of the Port of New Orleans to American vessels: “You have no doubt heard of the port of New Orleans having been shut by, the intendant of that place to American vessels —this circumstance has occasioned much agitation amongst the citizens of the United States— but I have great satisfaction in apprising you that it is believed to have been wholly unauthorized by the court of Spain.” Rather the order came from Napoleon: “Happy will it be for the world if his ambition is at length satisfied. But there is reason to believe that this native of a small island will not be contented until he has reduced a continent at least, perhaps the whole civilized world, to his dominion.” He reports that James Madison had sailed for Madrid to seek a reopening of the port and would continue on to France. “I think it is not improbable that the strong remonstrances of the United States backed by those of Great Britain, may prevail upon Beunaparte to give up his designs upon Louisiana and suffer it to be retained by Spain.” An important diplomatic letter reflecting grwoing international tensions between France, Spain and the United States on the eve of the Louisiana Purchase. James Madison was a signatory in Paris less then two months later. Provenance: Don Carlos Dehault Delassus – by descent to Emile Delassus — Armand Hawkins – sold to Alonzo J. Tullock, 1901 – by descent to the consignors.
Post Lot Text
The Louisiana Purchase Collection of Alonzo J. Tullock (Lots 65-80)

The historical significance of the Louisiana Purchase cannot be understated. With the stroke of a pen, the addition of the vast territory west of the Mississippi nearly doubled the size of the still young United States. The purchase set the nation upon a seemingly inevitable course to dominate the North American continent while simultaneously setting the stage for the sectional disputes that would nearly destroy the Union six decades later. While much has been written on the Purchase itself, less attention has been devoted the actual mechanics of the transfer of sovereignty in the years 1803 to 1804. That story involves three powers: Spain, which had taken control of the French possessions west of the Mississippi at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763; France, which had been awarded the territory in 1800 as per a secret treaty with Spain, but had yet to assume formal administration; and the United States, which had recently lost its trading privileges in New Orleans—nearly going to war with Spain over the matter. While Napoleon's surprise offer of all France’s territory west of Mississippi rendered the prospect of war academic, the sudden acquisition presented a range of logistical issues for the federal government in Washington. Most pressing was the assumption of sovereignty and organizing a government.

In 1804 Congress designated the territory below the 33rd parallel, today the northern boundary of modern Louisiana, as the Territory of Orleans, while the lands northward became, temporarily, a district of the Indiana Territory. Thus the responsibility for overseeing the transfer of sovereignty in upper Louisiana, as it had been called by the Spanish, fell upon the governor of the Indiana Territory, an office occupied by William Henry Harrison (1773-1840), better known for his military exploits during the War of 1812 and for his single-month term in the White House that ended with his untimely death. Appointed by John Adams in 1800, Harrison enjoyed the trust of Adams' successor as well: Thomas Jefferson reappointed Harrison to the post in 1803. During his tenure, Harrison had come to know Charles DeHault Delassus (1764-1846) the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Louisiana. In 1794, the Belgian-born Delassus had been serving in the Royal Walloon Guards for Carlos III of Spain when he learned that his family had fled French political persecution and requested a transfer to the Louisiana Regiment. Upon his arrival, Governor Condelet appointed Delassus civil and military commander of New Madrid, allowing him to be close to his parents in New Bourbon. In 1799, Delassus became the lieutenant governor of Upper Louisiana. Harrison's letters to Delassus begin in March 1803, delivering news of the secret treaty that transferred Louisiana from Spain to France, and concludes with the transmittal of the first governing structure for the newly-acquired Louisiana Territory. Most notable is Harrison's letter informing Delassus of the news of the Louisiana Purchase. This letter was the first news to reach west of the Mississippi River of the momentous event.

The Harrison letters are the centerpiece of the collection assembled by Alonzo J. Tullock (1854-1904), a civil engineer and successful bridge and pier builder based in Leavenworth, Kansas, who built many of the railway crossings over the Missouri River in the late nineteenth century, as well as the construction of the major wharf at Tampico for the Mexican government. Working closely with Andrew Carnegie, Tullock was instrumental in bringing the Carnegie Library to Leavenworth. In memorializing Tullock a year after his passing, the Journal of the Western Society of Engineers recalled that despite his "exceptionally busy" professional life, Tullock was also a voracious reader and avid book and manuscript collector—who paid "particular attention to the acquisition of books and papers relating to the Louisiana Purchase and his collection of these, diligently pursued for years, was unique.” (1905, p. 553).

Tullock acquired much of his collection from the noted New Orleans antique dealer Armand Hawkins in the last decade of the nineteenth century. Hawkins acquired the Harrison letters from Emile Delassus and his mother, direct descendants of Lieutenant Governor Delassus in the 1890s.

Christie’s honored to present this important historical collection assembled over a century ago.

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Gillian Hawley
Gillian Hawley

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