Robert Henri (1865-1929)
Robert Henri (1865-1929)

Smiling Tom (Thomas Cafferty)

Robert Henri (1865-1929)
Smiling Tom (Thomas Cafferty)
signed 'Robert Henri' (lower center)--signed again and inscribed 'Smiling Tom' and '60/M' (on the reverse prior to lining)
oil on canvas
24¼ x 20 in. (61.6 x 50.8 cm.)
Painted in 1924.
The artist.
Estate of the above.
Grand Central Art Galleries, New York.
Hirschl & Adler Galleries, Inc., New York.
Parrish & Reinish, Inc., New York.
Private collection, New York, acquired from the above, circa 1994-96.
B.W. Chambers, H.F. Sloan, Robert Henri (1865-1929) Selected Paintings, New York, 1986, pp. 17, 39, pl. X, illustrated (as Tommy (Thomas Cafferty)).
Owen Gallery, Robert Henri: American Icon, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1998, n.p., illustrated (as Smiling Tom).
V.A. Leeds, Robert Henri: The Painted Spirit, exhibition catalogue, New York, 2005, pp. 30, 90, 111, pl. 33, illustrated (as Tommy (Thomas Cafferty)).
Chicago, Illinois, Carson, Pirie, Scott, December 1924.
Baltimore, Maryland, Baltimore Charcoal Club, 1925.
New York, Berry-Hill Galleries, Inc., Robert Henri (1865-1929) Selected Paintings, June 11-July 18, 1986, no. 32 (as Tommy (Thomas Cafferty)).
New York, Owen Gallery, Robert Henri: American Icon, October 20-December 18, 1998 (as Smiling Tom).
Sale room notice
Please note this lot was not included in Gerald Peters Gallery's 2005 exhibition Robert Henri: The Painted Spirit, nor was it illustrated in the corresponding exhibition catalogue published by Gerald Peters Gallery and written by Valerie Ann Leeds.

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Lot Essay

In addition to his role as a leader of the Ashcan school and an influential teacher, Robert Henri is perhaps best remembered as an artist for his spirited portraits of children. In Smiling Tom (Thomas Cafferty) Henri depicts a young Irish boy in the artist's classic style: a portrait of a single child shown three-quarter length and painted in dashing strokes of color.

Robert Henri's portraits were not the result of costly commissions. Instead, the artist chose his sitters based on vitality and the present painting relies on Henri's ability to interact with his sitter and translate onto canvas an image that transcends a mere rendition of a boy. "At home in New York City and especially on his various travels in the United States and trips to Europe, he would seek out 'types,' individuals previously unknown to him whom he would ask to pose for a portrait. These were non-commercial efforts executed simply because the character of the subject attracted him. He began to call these 'My People,' sitters who represented a cross-section of races and cultures...As he said, he liked to paint 'My People,' 'whoever they may be, wherever they may exist, the people through whom dignity of life is manifest, that is, who are in some way expressing themselves naturally along the lines Nature intended for them.'" (W.I. Homer, "Robert Henri as a Portrait Painter" in My People: The Portraits of Robert Henri, Seattle, Washington, 1994, p. 13)

Henri's painting technique profoundly underscored the visual impact of his portraits. Henri writes about his painting style, "It is not the way you put paint on, but what you ask of it that counts. Our style is the way you talk in paint. The hair is wonderful in its gamut from materialism to idealism, from detail to bigness...The line on the head between the hair and the face is often a great opportunity for expression in a picture...The eye of a young person is clear cut, of an old person indefinite...Make the forms of a garment so that a trip through its hills and dales will be delightful...Clothes should have not limpness but the beauty of activity. Great things should be happening, currents should be running through. " (The Art Spirit, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1923, pp. 249-57) Utilizing vigorous brushwork and saturated colors, Henri in Smiling Tom (Thomas Cafferty) is able to distill the essence of the young Irish boy.

Henri sailed for Ireland for the first time in June 1913 with his wife, Marjorie Organ, staying until the end of September near the fishing villages of Keel and Dooagh on the island of Achill. After painting the magnificent landscape of the island, the artist reverted back to portraiture. Between 1913 and 1928, Henri returned to the island spending every spring or summer concentrating on capturing the children of Dooagh. Painted in 1924, Smiling Tom (Thomas Cafferty) is a masterful example of his later works in Ireland. Disparate from his earlier portraits in which the artist portrayed the playful personality of his subjects, these were more formal works investigating color and form. "Henri explored formal and abstract ideas of color and compositional harmonies in a virtual shorthand vocabulary. In these paintings, he used a more limited tonal range, with one or two foundation colors to build the composition." (V.A. Leeds, "The Portraits of Robert Henri" in My People: The Portraits of Robert Henri, p. 40)

In the present work, young Tom looks directly at the viewer as the vibrant tint of his rosy cheeks and lips are echoed in his red shirt but contrasted with the more subdued indigo hues of the background. This palette combination distributed with liberal brushstrokes becomes the artist's closest demonstration of abstraction. Henri wrote, "Gesture expresses through form and color the states of life. Work with great speed. Have your energies alert, up and active. Finish as quickly as you can. There is no virtue in delaying. Get the greatest possibility of expression in the larger masses first. Then the features in their greatest simplicity in concordance with and dependent on the mass. Do it all in one sitting if you can. In one minute if you can. There is no virtue in delaying. But do not pass from the work on mass to features until all that can be said with the larger forms has been said--no matter how long it may take, no matter if accomplishment of the picture may be delayed from one to many days. Hold to this principle that the greatest drawing, the greatest expression, the done through the larger masses and the larger gestures." (The Art Spirit, pp. 26-27)

Echoing in the numerous portraits painted toward the end of his career are his own words: "'If you paint children, you must have no patronizing attitude toward them. Whoever approaches a child without humility, without wonderment, and without infinite respect, misses in his judgment of what is before him...Paint with respect for him...He is the great possibility, the independent individual.' Emblematic of his universal and positive view of humankind, children had a particular spirit and sense of optimism that had powerful allure for Henri." ("The Portraits of Robert Henri" in My People: The Portraits of Robert Henri, p. 41) Part of a remarkable group of Henri's portraits focused on children from the Irish villages on Achill Island, Smiling Tom (Thomas Cafferty) exemplifies the hallmarks that make Henri's portraits some of his most coveted work.

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