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Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)
Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)
Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)
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Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)
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Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)

Forme uniche della continuità nello spazio (Unique Forms of Continuity in Space)

Details
Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)
Forme uniche della continuità nello spazio (Unique Forms of Continuity in Space)
signed 'U. BOCCIONI' (on the left side of the base); inscribed, dated, numbered and inscribed with foundry mark 'FUSIONE ESEGUITA PER LA GALLERIA LA MEDUSA ROMA SETTEMBRE 1972 4/8 FONDERIA FRANCESCO B.' (on the right side of the base)
bronze
Height: 46 in. (117 cm.)
Length: 35 in. (89 cm.)
Conceived in 1913 and cast in 1972
Provenance
Galleria La Medusa, Rome (1972).
Private collection (June 1975).
Private collection, Europe (acquired from the above).
Acquired from the above by the present owner.
Literature
E. Cajumi, "Scultura futurista" in Giornale di Sicilia, 10-11 December 1913.
G. Benvenuti, "La scultura futurista" in Il Tirso, 28 December 1913.
U. Boccioni, Pittura scultura futuriste (Dinamismo plástico), Milan, 1914 (plaster version illustrated).
R. Longhi, Scultura futurista: Boccioni, Florence, 1914, pp. 133-162.
A. Soffici, Cubismo e futurismo, Florence, 1914 (plaster version illustrated).
M. Sarfatti, "L’opera di Umberto Boccioni" in Gli Avvenimenti, 24 September 1916, vol. II, no. 39, p. 15.
M. Grassini-Sarfatti, "Umberto Boccioni" in Vita d’Arte, 30 April 1917, vol. XVI, nos. 3-4, p. 50.
F. T. Marinetti, "Il pittore e scultore futurista Boccioni" in Il primato artistico italiano, October 1923, no. 1, p. 7.
F.T. Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni: Opera completa, Foligno, 1927 (plaster version illustrated).
G. Scheiwiller, Art italien moderne, Paris, 1930, p. 27 (plaster version illustrated).
"Dinamo Futurista; I Maestri del Futurismo: Umberto Boccioni" in Fortunato Depero, 11 February 1933, no. 1, p. 145 (plaster version illustrated, pp. 145, 211 and 213).
V. Costantini, "Gallerie italiane d'arte moderne: La Galleria di Milano" in Emporium, May 1941, vol. XCIII, no. 555, p. 106.
R. Benet, El Futurismo comparado el movimiento Dada, Barcelona, 1949, pp. 68-72 (another cast illustrated, fig. 54; dated 1915).
A. Podestà, "L'arte italiana contemporanea in una mostra a New York" in Emporium, October 1949, vol. CX, no. 658, p. 168 (another cast illustrated).
R. Carrieri, Pittura scultura d'avanguardia in Italia, Milan, 1950, pp. 42 and 65 (plaster version illustrated, p. 42, figs. 44-45).
C. Zervos, "Sculpture futuriste" in Cahiers d'Art, 1950, pp. 58-59 (other casts illustrated).
G. Carlo-Argen, Umberto Boccioni, Rome, 1953 (another cast illustrated, fig. 58).
“La VII Quadriennale" in Emporium, May 1956, vol. CXXIII, no. 737, p. 215.
L. Degand and J. Arp, "La collection H. et L. Winston au Musée de Detroit" in Aujourd'hui, December 1957, no. 15, p. 30.
L.K. and H.L. Winston, "Collecting Modern Art" in Vassar Alumnae Magazine, March 1958, vol. XLIII, no. 4, p. 11 (another cast illustrated in situ in the Winston Malibu home).
M. Calvesi, "Il futurismo di Boccioni: Formazione e tempi" in Arte antica e moderna, April-June 1958, no. 2, p. 165.
M. Seuphor, The Sculpture of this Century, New York, 1960, p. 43 (another cast illustrated).
R. Carrieri, Il Futurismo, Milan, 1961 (plaster version illustrated, fig. 32; another cast illustrated, fig. 34).
R. De Grada, Boccioni: Il mito del moderno, Milan, 1962, p. 101 (other casts illustrated, figs. 77-79 and 81).
M. Drudi Gambillo and T. Fiori, Archivi del Futurismo, Rome, 1962, pp. 334-335.
L.K. and H.L. Winston, "Le Futurisme" in Aujourd'hui, February 1962, p. 5.
G. Ballo, Boccioni: La vita e l'opera, Milan, 1964, p. 502, no. 521 (plaster version and other casts illustrated, figs. 228-231).
A. Bowness, Modern Sculpture, London, 1965, p. 72.
K. Kuh, Break-Up: The Core of Modern Art, London, 1965, no. 30 (another cast illustrated).
E. Mercuri, "Attualità di Boccioni" in QUI arte contemporanea, July 1966, no. I, pp. 19 and 21.
G. Baro, "Collector: Lydia Winston" in Art in America, September-October 1967, vol. 55, no. 5, p. 72 (another cast illustrated in color in situ in the Winston Malibu home).
J.-C. Taylor, "Futurism: The Avant-Garde as a Way of Life" in Art News Annual, October 1968, vol. XXXIV, p. 85.
G. Bruno, L'opera completa di Boccioni, Milan, 1969, p. 111, no. 166 (another cast illustrated, p. 111; other casts illustrated in color, figs. XLIII-XLV).
F. Bellonzi, Scultori italiani contemporanei, exh. cat., International University of Florence, 1970, p. 29, no. V.
Z. Birolli, Umberto Boccioni, Milan, 1971, pp. 166-167 (plaster version and other casts illustrated).
J. Rye, Futurism, London, 1972, p. 88 (another cast illustrated, p. 89).
M.W. Martin, Futurism: A Modern Focus, The Lydia and Harry Lewis Winston Collection, Dr. and Mrs. Barnett Malbin, exh. cat., The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1973, p. 72, no. 30 (another cast illustrated).
C. Tisdall and A. Bozzolla, Futurismo, London, 1977, pp. 90 and 98, no. 82 (another cast illustrated, p. 99).
H. Kramer, "The 'Brutal Ideology' at the Heart of Futurism" in The New York Times, 14 December 1980, p. 41 (another cast illustrated).
M. Calvesi and E. Coen, Boccioni, Milan, 1983, pp. 466-467, no. 856 (plaster version illustrated, pp. 466-498, figs. a-d; other casts illustrated, pp. 469-470, figs: e-g).
F. Roche-Pézard, L'aventure futuriste: 1906-1916, Rome, 1983, pp. 479-480, nos. 81-84 (another cast illustrated, fig. 41; plaster version illustrated, fig. 42).
E. Coen, Umberto Boccioni, New York, 1988, pp. 216-218, no. 88 (another cast illustrated in color, p. 217).
L. Mattioli Rossi, Boccioni: 1912 Materia, exh. cat., Galleria dello Scudo, Verona, 1991, p. 245 (another cast illustrated in situ in the Mattioli home, p. 25; plaster version illustrated, p. 244; plaster version illustrated in Il secolo illustrato, p. 292).
U.M. Schneede, Umberto Boccioni, Stuttgart, 1994, p. 151 (plaster version illustrated, pp. 147-149, nos. 85-86; other casts illustrated, p. 150, fig. 88).
P. Rylands, ed., Umberto Boccioni: Dinamismo di un cavallo in corsa + case, exh. cat., Collezione Peggy Guggenheim, Venice, 1996, pp. 39, 88, 89 and 117-118 (plaster version illustrated, pp. 89 and 119, figs. 58 and 72; other casts illustrated, pp. 39, 88 and 118, figs. 18, 57 and 71).
L. Tallarico, Boccioni: dal Meridione all'Europa, Ferrarra, 1997, p. 84 (another cast illustrated).
L. Velani, La fortuna di Boccioni in Italia, Bonasegale, 1999, p. 16 (another cast illustrated, fig. 6).
M. Calvesi, P. Ginsborg and F. Pirani, Novecento: Arte e storia in Italia, exh. cat., Scuderie del Quirinale, Roma, 2000, pp. 141-142, no. II.4 (another cast illustrated).
A. Del Puppo, "Lacerba" 1913-1915: Arte e critica d'arte, Bergamo, 2000, pp. 202-204 (plaster version illustrated, p. 203, fig. 21).
P. Esposito and M. Fratelli, Il Museo del Novecento del Comune di Milano al Palazzo della Permanente, Milan, 2000, p. 218, no. 13 (another cast illustrated in color, p. 35, fig. 17).
N. Nobis, Der Lärm der StraußeItalienischer Futurismus, 1909-1918, exh. cat., Sprengel Museum Hannover, 2001, pp. 68-69 and 399, cat. 104, note 5 (another cast illustrated, p. 68, fig. 5; plaster version illustrated, p. 129, figs. 106-108 and 110; plaster version illustrated, p.129, fig. 108; another cast illustrated in color, p. 138, fig. 104).
F. Rovati, "La mostra su Boccioni del 1933" in Acme: Annali della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia dell'Università degli Studi di Milano, September-December 2001, vol. LIV, no. III, p. 312.
G. Lista, Futurismo: Velocità e dinamismo espressivo, Santarcangelo di Romagna, 2002, pp. 88-89.
A. Masoero, Umberto Boccioni: La cittá che sale, Milan, 2003, p. 61 (another cast illustrated in color).
H. Foster, R. Krauss, Y.-A. Bois and B.H.D. Buchloh, Art since 1900: Modernism, Antimodernism, Postmodernism, New York, 2004, vol. 1, p. 93 (another cast illustrated, fig. 3).
L. Mattioli Rossi, ed. Boccioni's Materia: A Futurist Masterpiece and the Avant-Garde in Milan and Paris, New York, 2004, pp. 42-43 (plaster version illustrated, p. 43, figs. 40-42).
A. Palazzeschi, I classici dell’arteIl Novecento: Boccioni, Milan, 2004, p. 136 (another cast illustrated, p. 137).
L. Mattioli Rossi, Boccioni: Pittore scultore futurista, exh. cat., Palazzo Reale, Milan, 2006, pp. 114-115 and 185, cat. 65 (another cast illustrated in color).
L. Sansone, Umberto Boccioni: La rivolusione della scultura, Milan, 2006, pp. 40-41 and 44-47 (other casts illustrated in color, p. 40, fig. 41, p. 45, figs. 49-51 and p. 46, fig. 53; another cast illustrated in situ at the Castello Storzesco in Milan, p, 40, fig. 41; plaster version illustrated, p. 62, figs. 74-77).
F. Benzi, Il Futurismo, Milan, 2008, p. 105 (another cast illustrated in color).
D. Ottinger, ed., Futurism, exh. cat., Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 2009, p. 234, no. 80 (another cast illustrated in color, p. 235).
M. Stokstad, Art History: Eighteenth to Twenty-First Century, Upper Saddle River, 2009, p. 1084 (another cast illustrated in color, p. 1085, fig. 31-28).
Z. Birolli and M. Pugliese, Il futurismo nelle avanguardie, exh. cat., Palazzo Reale, Milan, 2010, pp. 417-439 (plaster version illustrated in color, p. 417; another cast illustrated, p. 420; another cast illustrated in situ in a 1933 exhibition, p. 421; plaster version illustrated in situ in the artist's studio, p. 422; plaster version illustrated in a letter to Carrà, p. 430; plaster version illustrated, pp. 434 and 436).
F. Fergonzi, A. Negri and M. Pugliese, Museo del Novecento: The Collection, Milan, 2010, pp. 75-76 (other casts illustrated in color).
M. Calvesi and A. Dambruoso, Umberto Boccioni: Catalogo generale delle opere, Torino, 2016, pp. 451-452, no. 712 (another cast illustratred in color on the cover; plaster version illustrated, p. 451).
A. Contò and F. Rossi, Umberto Boccioni Atlas, Milan, 2016, p. 69 (plaster version illustrated, p. 70, figs. 53a-d; plaster version illustrated in newspapers, p. 184, fig. 2.11 and p. 208, figs. 3.18 and 3.20).
I.F. Walther, ed., Art of the 20th Century, Cologne, 2016, vol. I, p. 434 (another cast illustrated in color, p. 435).
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Lot Essay

An icon of Modernism, Umberto Boccioni’s Unique Forms of Continuity in Space stands not only as the culmination of the artist’s pioneering form of Futurist sculpture, but also serves as a powerful visual embodiment of the Futurists’ iconoclastic and revolutionary artistic aims. Conceived in plaster in 1913, in this, the artist’s largest surviving sculpture, Boccioni has taken one of the most revered subjects in the Western tradition of art—the human figure—and split it apart before reconstructing it in a complex, abstract structure of dynamic, interlocking facets and graceful planes that penetrate and activate the space surrounding it. Striding boldly forward in a pose of powerful and continuous motion, this seemingly indomitable figure presents a new conception of man, as well as sculpture, in the 20th-century: mechanical, forward moving and entirely modern.
Boccioni first turned to sculpture in 1912, the year before he conceived the present work. Just as the Futurists had overturned conventions of painting, so the artist wished to do the same for sculpture, seeking to translate the dynamic sense of movement and modernity that had characterized his paintings into three-dimensional form. In March, he wrote to his friend, Vico Baer from Paris about the newfound passion that was driving this dramatic new direction in his art: “These days I’m obsessed with sculpture! I believe I’ve seen a total renewal of this mummified art” ( quoted in L. Mattioli Rossi, Boccionis Materia: A Futurist Masterpiece and the Avant-Garde in Milan and Paris, exh. cat., The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 2004, p. 35). Likely spurred on by the various forms of contemporary sculpture he had seen during his time spent in Paris—the work of Picasso, Brancusi, Duchamp-Villon and others—Boccioni set about conceiving his own distinct, Futurist response.
A month later, Boccioni laid out his theoretical approach to the medium in the Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture, conceived before he had fully committed himself to working in three-dimensions. Like previous Futurist tracts, Boccioni attacked the art of the past, condemning sculptors—from the ancient Greeks to Michelangelo—for failing to break free from traditional conventions of the medium, thus never creating works that truly embodied nor reflected contemporary life. Instead, Boccioni called for a new form of sculpture, one which, by breaking down the division between the figure and its surroundings and thereby integrating real space into the work, would thus embody the simultaneity and dynamism that defined the spirit of the times. “Why should sculpture be the one to lag behind, loaded down with laws which no one has the right to impose?” he questioned. “Let’s turn everything upside down and proclaim the ABSOLUTE AND COMPLETE ABOLITION OF FINITE LINES AND THE CONTAINED STATUE. LET’S SPLIT OPEN OUR FIGURES AND PLACE THE ENVIRONMENT INSIDE THEM. We declare that the environment must form part of the plastic whole, a world of its own, with its own laws: so that the pavement can jump up on to your table, or your head can cross a street, while your lamp twines a web of plaster rays from one house to the net” (Boccioni, Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture, in U. Apollonio, ed., Futurist Manifestos, trans. R. Brain, et al., Boston, 1973, p. 63).
Following three works that focus upon the motif of the portrait head, as well as a still-life (Calvesi and Dambruoso, nos. 415, 437, 438 and 690), at the end of 1912, Boccioni moved to tackle the standing figure in motion. He worked on a small series of four full-length figures, of which Unique Forms is the culminating work. The three preceding, closely related works—Muscles in Movement, Spiral Expansion of Muscles in Movement and Synthesis of Human Dynamism (Calvesi and Dambruoso, nos. 710, 711, 713; all destroyed and known only from photographs)—are, like Unique Forms, created from a cubist-inspired fragmentation of form, a language that allowed Boccioni to achieve his aim of beginning from the inside, or the core of the figure, to better instill a sense of dynamism into the static, inert material and integrate the object with its surroundings. Inspired by the contemporaneous chronophotography of Etienne-Jules Marey and Anton Giulio Bragaglia, Boccioni explored the effects of motion on the body in these works, as well as the linear rhythms that activate the human form.
Boccioni’s aim in these works was not simply to depict or transcribe the image of a figure in motion, but to convey the sensation of this movement, “the throbbing of its soul” (J. Golding, Boccionis Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Newcastle, 1972, p. 8), capturing in visual form the range of simultaneous forces exerting themselves upon a body at the same time. These Bergonsian concepts of synthesis and simultaneity had long interested Boccioni, reaching a fruition in these sculptures. As he wrote in the introduction to his first sculpture exhibition held at the Galerie La Boëtie in Paris in June-July 1913—where Unique Forms was shown for the first time—he was seeking to depict, “not pure form, but pure plastic rhythm; not the construction of bodies, but the construction of the action of bodies” ( quoted in F. Fergonzi, in op. cit., 2004, p. 129).
It was with the fourth and final of this group of striding figures, the present Unique Forms, that Boccioni successfully achieved this aim, creating a work that embodied the concept of “continuity in space”. Every single plane is activated and dynamic, protruding into the area surrounding the sculpture, and incorporating this negative space into its composition, so to give the impression of an innate and most importantly, a constant sense of movement. As Ester Coen has written, “To the extent of representing all the possible variations of a movement in a single, absolute form, it synthesizes with great skill the contrast between object and surroundings” (Futurism, exh. cat., Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 2009, p. 234). The figure is so fluid, elegant and motion-filled it almost appears as if it could be leaping off the earth to become airborne, the gleaming bronze material of its construction serving as a visual counterpart to this seemingly weightless vision. In addition, here Boccioni has refined the flowing forms that constitute the figure, harnessing the play of light and shade created by the combination of curving convex and concave forms. As a result, the figure appears in an endless state of dynamism, as if blown by the air as it marches forward.
“The forms of the body are taut, and eminently sculptural”, John Golding has described. “Negative space is almost as important as solid mass, so that there is also an air of weightlessness, and the sense of speed is now euphoric and heady. The tough, elastic limbs convey overwhelmingly the sense of a new kind of motion… We sense that this is a creature driven by forces that are only partly human, capable if necessary of flight and of competition with the deified racing automobile at top velocity. The bulging muscles, half metal, half flame are pulled back to reveal the trajectory of earlier phases of motion, but these only serve to emphasize the inevitability of the forward drive” (op. cit., Newcastle, 1972, pp. 22-24). Yet, it is this powerful, unstoppable forward motion that also lends this work a striking poignancy. Unbeknownst to Boccioni, the seemingly indomitable figure of modern man that is deified in Unique Forms would, just a year later, march forward into battle. The industrial and mechanical world so revered and idealized by the artist and his Futurist comrades would become responsible for unleashing previously unimaginable levels of destruction and death. Regarded in this context, Unique Forms captures the sentiment of an era, embodying the spirit of innovation, zealous optimism and the supreme confidence that defines turn-of-the-century, pre-war Europe.

Forme uniche della continuità nello spazio, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913, is the highest achievement of Boccioni’s entire sculptural oeuvre. Here the body prolongs itself in a trajectory of motion masterfully simplified in a single and absolute form of all the possible variations of a movement. An utterly astounding thriving synthesis of the dynamic interconnection between an object and its ambience.
The present lot is one of the ten 1971-1972 examples of Boccioni’s renowned Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, commissioned and produced under the supervision of Claudio Bruni Sakraischik, director of the Rome art gallery “La Medusa”, in agreement with Count Paolo Marinotti, owner of the model for this edition: a 1951 bronze cast acquired from Benedetta Cappa Marinetti, widow of the Futurist leader Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Of these ten casts two are unnumbered and unmarked respectively for the commissioners Claudio Bruni Sakraischik and Paolo Marinotti.
The bronze casting of the ten pieces was carried out by the Francesco Bruni foundry in Rome on the Marinotti example, employing the surmoulage technique (bronze cast from a finished bronze) and the first two copies were ready as early as April 1971, as borne out by the foundry’s letter to Bruni Sakraischik. More than half of the casts from the edition are in public institutions, including the Israel Museum, the New Orleans Museum of Art, Städtische Kunsthalle, Mannheim, the Kröller-Müller Museum, the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art and the Hakone Open-Air Museum.
As mentioned above, the surmoulage edition of La Medusa derives from the bronze version made from Umberto Boccioni’s plaster, at the Giovanni & Angelo Nicci foundry in Rome, as deduced from an estimate of costs dated October 10, 1950. Presumably the cast was made in early 1951—as appears from Paolo Marinotti’s letter (February 10, 1951) in which the collector tells Benedetta Cappa Marinetti that he would like to see the work at the foundry just a few months after closure of the important exhibition Futurismo e Pittura Metafisica (Kunsthaus Zürich, November-December 1950), one of the initiatives aimed at revaluation and rehabilitation of the Italian avant-garde movements’ role at an international level.
In 1952 Benedetta Cappa Marinetti agreed to sell the original 1913 plaster work, still in her possession, to a leading Brazilian industrialist of Italian origin, Francisco Matarazzo Sobrinho. He then donated it in 1963 to the Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo which he himself had founded. With the new change of ownership two more bronzes were made in Brazil out of the plaster: one probably at the moment of donation (now in the same Brazilian institution, MAC USP) and the other in 1972 for the Tate Gallery of London in exchange for a Henry Moore sculpture.
More than fifty years after the artist’s death in 1916 Claudio Bruni Sakraischik, having sought legal advice on copyright, as testified by his gallery assistant at the time, decided to have an edition of ten pieces made. Since the plaster was no longer available for the reasons stated above, Bruni reached an agreement with Marinotti to produce an edition from the bronze owned by the latter.
Casts were made on two occasions (in 1931 and again twenty years later) by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti—Boccioni’s moral heir—and by his widow Benedetta Cappa Marinetti, from the plaster of Unique Forms of Continuity in Space. These are distinguishable by their different bases (the first cast included two blocks beneath the feet while the second had a further base, like the original plaster). There is however a version done by the Giovanni & Angelo Nicci foundry of Rome prior to 1956 (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of Lydia Winston Malbin) with a double pedestal, as in the “La Medusa” edition.
Another two pieces with block and base were created, as we have seen, by the Museu de Arte Contemporânea da Universidade de São Paulo when it purchased the original sculpture.

A CASTING INVENTORY
The original plaster of the present sculpture is located at the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo. All further examples are posthumous. The two 1931 casts are at the Museo del Novecento, Milan and Museum of Modern Art, New York. The 1949 cast is at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The 1951 cast was in the collection of Count Paolo Marinotti. The 1963 cast is located at the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo. A single 1972 cast is located at The Tate Gallery, London. Of the ten casts from the 1972 numbered edition, six are located in public institutions, including The Israel Museum, Jerusalem; New Orleans Museum of Art; Städtische Kunsthalle, Mannheim; Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo; Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art; and Hakone Open-Air Museum, Ninotaira.

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