BOOK OF HOURS, use of Paris, in Latin and French ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT ON VELLUM
167 x 115mm. ii (i as pastedown) + 217 + ii (inserted before f.217 used as pastedown): 1-26, 38, 47(of 8 lacking ii), 5-88, 97 (of 8 lacking i), 10-128, 133 (of 2+iii), 142, 153 (of 4 lacking i), 162, 178, 182 (of 4 lacking ii and iii), 197 (of 6+iii), 208, 216, 227 (of 8 lacking i), 23-308, 313 (of 4 lacking iv), 328, 332 (ii as pastedown, with inner added parchment bifolium), catchwords to right of lower margins of some final versos, 14 lines written in black ink in a gothic book hand between two verticals and 15 horizontals ruled in pink, justification: 84 x 51mm, rubrics in blue, text capitals touched yellow, one- to three-line foliate initials in blue red and white on burnished gold grounds, similar line-endings, A BORDER ON EVERY PAGE to the three outer margins, some with birds, animals and grotesques, TWENTY-FOUR CALENDAR MINIATURES IN MARGINS, TEN SMALL MINIATURES, TWO LARGE MINIATURES AND THIRTEEN FULL-PAGE MINIATURES within broad frames of foliate and other motifs on burnished gold (lacking seven leaves, probably six with miniatures; slight rubbing to miniatures ff.74v, 86v, 91v). Red velvet over wooden boards. PROVENANCE: (a) Although the Office of the Dead is unidentified, the other texts suggest an origin in Paris or a Parisian model. (b) Given by Léonard Renard to his daughter Anne in 1683 as inscribed inside upper cover. (c) FRANçOIS-MICHEL-CéSAR LE TELLIER, MARQUIS DE COURTANVAULX (1718-1781): his engraved armorial bookplate inside upper cover; his stamp COURTANVAUX on ff.2 and 215v. The Marquis was encouraged by the inheritance in 1764 of the considerable library of his son, Charles- François-César, marquis de Montmirail, to form one of the outstanding libraries of his age; lot 42 in his sale, Jean-Luc Nyon, Catalogue des livres de la Bibliothèque de feu François-César le Tellier, Marquis de Courtanvaux, le 4 mars et les jours suivants, Paris, 1782, p.3. (d) SUSANNAH MONYPENNY, d.1873, as inscribed on upper cover: 'This book was the property of Susannah Monypenny, my father's sister, but was presented to me at her demise by R P D M her son Obiit February 21st 1873 aet. 71 anno'. Susannah, daughter of James Dearden of Handle Hall, Lancs, married in 1835 Robert Joseph Monypenny of Maytham Hall, Kent (1806-1842), a descendant of the Monypennys of Pitmilly in Fife, Scotland. Susannah had four brothers; the youngest, Peregrine Royds Dearden (1811-1879), was joint guardian of her son, Robert Philips DeardenMonypenny (1836-1890), and it was probably one of Peregrine's daughters who was given the Book of Hours. Other candidates are the daughters of her eldest brother, James Dearden F.S.A., who owned an illuminated manuscript Dutch Book of Hours (Amsterdam, Menno Herzberger cat. 100, 1940, no 1) as part of the extensive library he built up at Rochdale Manor, which he had purchased from Lord Byron. Unfortunately his daughter named for Susannah, Susanna-Ada, had died in 1848. CONTENT: Calendar ff.1v-13; Gospel extracts ff.14-21v: St John f.14, St Luke f.16, St Matthew f.18, St Mark f.21(lacking end); Obsecro te ff.22-26v; O intemerata ff.26v-29v; Office of the Virgin, use of Paris, ff.31-109v: matins f.31 (lacking penultimate leaf), lauds f.60, prime f.75, terce f.82, sext f.87, none f.92 (lacking end), vespers f.96, compline f. 104 (lacking end); Hours of the Cross ff.110-113 (lacking opening); Hours of the Holy Spirit ff.114-118; Penitential Psalms (lacking end) ff.119-133v; Litany ff.134-139; Office of the Dead, unidentified use, ff.140-195v; Quinze joies ff.196-202; Sept requêtes ff.202v-206v; Suffrages ff.207-215: St Michael f.207, St John the Baptist f.207v (lacking end), St John the Evangelist f.208, Sts Peter and Paul f.208v, St Sebastian f.209, St Nicholas f.210v, St Anne f.211v, St Catherine f.212, St Margaret f.213, St Barbara f.214, St Avoye f.214v. The Office of the Dead has Ottosen: 72, 14, 24, 57, 24, 68, 28, 46, 38. This is as Lyon Bibl. mun. ms 5152, except for the reversal of 24 and 68 in the second nocturne. ILLUMINATION: This intriguing Book of Hours probably originated in the circle of the illuminators who worked between 1501 and 1503 for the great Renaissance patron Cardinal Georges d'Amboise, Archbishop of Rouen. Among them was Robert Boyvin, documented in Rouen from 1487 to 1536, who is known for employing such decorated broad gold frames around his miniatures, see the Hours in the Hauck Collection, sold Christie's, New York, 27-28 June 2006, lot 125. Boyvin, however, painted in a dry, flat style with none of the facial modelling that characterises this illuminator, who leaves a grey base tone for shadows and adds emphatic red touches to cheeks and lips. In this he seems to be emulating the traits of Jean Bourdichon, painter to the Kings of France, whose influence extended beyond his base in Tours, and comes closer to the better work attributed to the Parisian artist who worked for Georges d'Amboise, Jean Pichore, documented in Paris from 1502-1520. Pichore also designed cuts to illustrate printed books: this lavishly planned Hours was clearly influenced by developments in the design of printed books, particularly in the introduction of full-page miniatures. The model for the Tree of Jesse, f.30v, seems to have been the cuts designed by the Master of the Très petites heures of Anne of Brittany, in particular that used in an Hours printed in Paris in 1495 (I. Nettekoven, Der Meister der Apocalypsenrose der Sainte Chapelle und die Pariser Buchkunst um 1500, 2004, Abb.153). The text page borders are in an earlier taste but the format of the book makes it most unlikely that it was written much before 1490. An Hours in Vienna (ÖNB, cod. 1927), from the same circle of illuminators, also combines text pages decorated in an earlier style with miniatures of the 1490s, perhaps by a hand related to the illuminator of the present lot (O. Pächt and D. Thoss, Die illuminierten handschriften und Inkunabeln der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, Französische Schule II, 1977, pp.73-81). The subjects of the full-page miniatures are as follows: St John being boiled in oil at the Latin Gate, in the background on Patmos f.13v, St Luke f.15v, St Matthew f.17v, St Mark f.20v, Tree of Jesse f.30v, Nativity f. 74v, Annunciation to the Shepherds f.81v, Adoration of the Magi f.86v, Presentation in the Temple f.91v, Coronation of the Virgin f.103v, Pentecost f.113v, The Last Judgement f.118v, Death attacking a Pope, Emperor and King f.139v. The subjects of the large miniatures are as follows: the Virgin enthroned with the Child flanked by two angels f.196, the Trinity, the Dove hovering between the enthroned Father and Son f.202v. The subjects of the small miniatures are as follows: St Michael f.207 (width of text column), St John the Evangelist f.208,Sts Peter and Paul f.208v, St Sebastian f.209,St Nicholas f.210v, St Anne f.211v, St Catherine f.212, St Margaret f.213, St Barbara f.214, St Avoye f.214v. The subjects of the calendar miniatures are as follows: a man dining f.1v, Aquarius emptying his water pot into a river f.2, a an warming his hands at a fire while another brings in wood f2v. Pisces as three fish swimming in a river f.3, pruning vines f.3v, Aries in a landscape f.4, two ladies gathering flowers in a garden f.4v, Taurus in a landscape f.5, a man hawking f.5v, Gemini as a naked man and woman partly concealed by shrubs f.6, two men scything f.6v, Cancer as a lobster beside a river f.7, two men bundling sheaves of grain f.7v, Leo in a landscape f.8, two men threshing f.8v, Virgo in a landscape f.9, a man sowing f.9v, Libra hanging above a landscape f.10, two women and a man harvesting grapes f.10v, Scorpio in a landscape f.11, a man and a woman butchering a pig f.11v, Sagittarius galloping along a road f.12, a man baking bread f.12v, Capricorn trotting through a landscape f.13.