The Syrian physician Ibn al-Nafis, better known in the Arabic literature by his nisbah al-Qurashi, was an authority on religious law, logic, and theology, as well as a prolific writer of medical tracts. Originally from Damascus, he spent much of his life in Cairo, where he became "Chief of Physicians". See Emily Savage-Smith, Ibn al-Nafis (https://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/arabic/bioI.html). His most important work, the Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna’s Canon included his ground-breaking views on the pulmonary circulation and heart. He also worked on an enormous textbook, The Comprehensive Book of Medicine. This was never completed but was the largest medical encyclopedia to be attempted at the time and is still consulted by scholars (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18845773).