Shah Mahmud Nishapuri, also known as Zarin Qalam ('Golden Pen'), lived and worked in Tabriz for most of his life. He was a royal calligrapher to Shah Tahmasp (d. 1574 AD) and was without doubt one of the greatest calligraphers of his time, renowned for his 'perfect nasta'liq'. When the Shah lost interest in the Arts, Shah Mahmud moved to Mashhad and worked there under the patronage of Ibrahim Mirza (d. 1577 AD) until he died (Titley, 1983, pp.84,103,105, fig.81; and A.J. Arberry (ed.), The Chester Beatty Library. A Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts and Miniatures, Vol. II, no. 179). His recorded work is dated between AH 923 and 982/1517 and 1575 AD.