Arthur W J G Ord-Hume, The Musical Clock, Musical and Automaton Clocks and Watches, Mayfield, 1995
Richard C R Barder, The Georgian Bracket Clock 1714-1830, Woodbridge, 1993
Klaus Maurice, Die deutsche Räderuhr Band II, Munich, 1976
Liao Pin ed., Clocks and Watches of the Qing Dynasty, From the Collection in the Forbidden City, Beijing, 2002
Clocks signed Barnard, London are believed to be the work of Thomas Barnard of 72 Strand (active 1783-1823), a maker of musical clocks (see Ord-Hume, p.278.
The revolving crescent moon finial and crescent moon mounts at the top of this clock suggest that it was destined for the 'Turkish' market, a market which included most of the Near East and Persia. Many such clocks were adorned with crescent finials (see Barder pp.160-161). However, it may be noted that the dial does not use Turkish numerals, a feature commonly found on clocks for that market and which English clock and watchmakers of the late 18th Century were well versed in using. It does, though, have a seconds hand, which is more usually found on clocks for the Chinese market. In apparent deference to Islamic sensibilities English clocks for the Turkish generally did not use figural representation (human or animal), although this rule was probably not strictly adhered to. A tortoiseshell-veneered clock with Turkish market numerals and dating from c.1790 illustrated by Barder (p.170) has an 'Oriental' scene painted with both a minaret and a Chinese figure; in London at the end of the 18th Century awareness of the iconography of different cultures was limited. It comes as little surprise therefore to find that a clock such as this was sent to China. The origins of the 'cabinet clock' lie in the elaborate altar-form clocks of late 17th/early 18th Century Augsburg (see Maurice, figs.704-724) and in London during the last quarter of the 18th Century smaller versions were produced by retailers such as James Cox, and Thomas Weeks, often incorporating necessaires. The Barnard clock may well originally have housed implements but the present drawers are replacements. Comparison may also be made with the Swiss dressing table clock (lot 1506) in this collection. In the Palace Museum a more elaborate cabinet clock retailed by Williamson has automatic doors (see Liao Pin, p.99).