This is part of a number of drawings of women dancing which Isaac Israels made circa 1890-94 during his frequent visits to the area around the Pijp, Nieuwmarkt and Zeedijk in Amsterdam, known for its red-light district, bars and cabarets. A comparable study, but much brisker in handling, and a pastel variant of women dancing in a shabby café interior were sold in these rooms, 19-20 January 1999, lot 272 and 17 November 2010, lot 51A respectively. These works on paper culminated in Israels' painting of the same subject, A. Wagner, Isaac Israels, Venlo, 1985, p. 44, fig. 36. Very similar studies of women dancing by George Hendrick Breitner (1857-1923) show that he must have sometimes joined Israels in his visits to these areas.