These impressive wall-lights are virtually identical to examples at Tsarskoe Selo, which are traditionally attributed to Jean-Pierre de Lancry, who supplied ornamental bronzes to the Imperial Court between 1804 and 1807. These included sconces 'with a representation of Minerva's heads in helmets...', a description clearly referring to the present design (I. Sychev, Russian Bronze, Moscow, 2003, p. 101.) They were probably part of the acquisitions made by Alexander I (1801-1825), who took a great interest in the refurbishment of the various Imperial residences (G. Loukomski, The Palaces of Tsarskoe Selo, London, 1987, 2nd ed., p. 83). Emulating various French prototypes, they are delicately chased, with great contrast between the matt and burnished surfaces, and are particularly close to the work of Antoine-Andre Ravrio (1759-1814). In fact, several elements, including various parts of the foliage, feature in almost identical form on wall-lights supplied by Ravrio to Fontainebleau in 1805 and 1808 (J.-P. Samoyault, Pendules et bronzes d'ameublement entris sous le Premier Empire, Paris, 1989, p. 146, nos. 122-123).