A mirror of this type in the Donald H. Graham, Jr. Collection is illustrated by Toru Nakano, Bronze Mirrors from Ancient China, 1994, pp. 148-9. The author describes the seven nipples within a continuous arc roundel as "miniaturized mirrors" representing seven children, while the nine nipples "signify nine grandchildren." The combination of the various motifs most likely conveys a wish for longevity and numerous children and grandchildren. As with the present mirror, areas of the decoration are highlighted by added silvery patination. Another related mirror is illustrated in Ancient Bronze Mirrors in the National Museum of History, Taipei, 1996, pp. 96-7.