Manchu men's formal attire, chaofu or robes of state, were worn for the most important court functions by the emperor, princes, nobles, civil and military high ranking officials. The events included the Grand Audiences held in the Forbidden City such as the enthronement of the emperor, receiving felicitations from officials, imperial weddings, and the great ritual sacrifices. The two-part construction of the robe, with pleated skirt attached to the upper body, derived from Ming-style court dress, which was adapted by the Manchu who altered the full sleeves to tapered sleeves and narrow cuffs, symbolic of their original nomadic lifestyle. At the Qing court the colour blue had ritual significance. It was the colour associated with the rites at the Altar of Heaven, located south of the Forbidden City where the Emperor offered sacrifices at the winter solstice and also prayed for rain during the summer months. The colbalt-blue was designated for the robes of Manchu princes from the first through the fourth rank. Other nobles and high-ranking officials, who were entitled to attend the most formal of state functions where chaofu were required, wore dark blue or black.