Zhang Tingji, formerly known as Rulin, was a Qing dynasty calligrapher and epigrapher from Zhejiang province. In the third year of the Jiaqing era (1798) he placed first in the provincial jieyuan examinations, but could not pass the higher level examinations despite making several attempts. Later, he returned to his hometown to conduct academic research and create his own art. He composed poetry in a natural, unadorned style that made good use of allusions and had a great appreciation for culture. A fine scholar of rubbings and epigraphic texts, Zhang Tingji was able to discern the origins and authenticity of all stone tablets, no matter how they were carved. He was passionate about collecting all kinds of cultural antiquities, including ancient ding (tripods), yi (wine vessels), rubbings, books, and many paintings.