In style these paintings relate to others of Mecca done by Indian artists. One of these was sold in these Rooms, 10 April 2014, lot 239. Another, signed Mahmud, was sold at Sotheby's, 6 April 2011, lot 229. Mahmud signed another, similar, painting, now in the Khalili Collection (J.M. Rogers, The Arts of Islam. Treasures from the Nasser D. Khalili Collection, Abu Dhabi, 2007, no.298, pp.260-61). The depiction of the buildings in our paintings, particularly along the bottom of that on vertical format, recall that found on Pahari paintings, see for instance a painting entitled ‘Krishna Espies Radha and the Gopis’ done in the Guler style in circa 1790-1800 (John Seyller and Jagdish Mittal, Pahari Paintings in the Jagdish and Kamla Mittal Museum of Indian Art, Hyderabad, 2014, fig.20, p.247).
When he visited Mecca in 1853, Richard Burton wrote that a number of Indian artists there supported themselves by 'drawing pictures of the holy shrines in pen and ink' (Richard Burton, Personal Narrative of a pilgrimage to Al-Madinah & Meccah, London, 1893, p.341 quoted in Stephen Vernoit, Occidentalism, The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, London, 1997, p.33). These miniatures are probably of the type of work done by these artists.