This highly finished, vibrantly colored copper was once, according to a label on the reverse, attributed to the Sienese master Francesco Vanni (1563-1610). The convincing depth of the room, delicately articulated hair and beard of Saint Joseph, and the exquisitely rendered flowers offered by the angel at left all attest to the high quality of this Holy Family, but its artist has in common with Vanni only their shared link to Federico Barocci, under whom Vanni studied in Rome. The present painter, whose style recalls that of Antonio Viviani, remains unknown. Like Vanni, he was clearly inspired by the art of Barocci, whose work was widely admired, often through popular engravings made after his paintings: indeed, in the present work, the figure of Joseph, the basket on the ground at left, and the view through the window at right are inspired by motifs found in Barocci's celebrated Madonna della Gatta (London, National Gallery), which was engraved in 1577 by Cornelis Cort. In the present painting, these elements appear in reverse relative to Barocci's original, suggesting that the artist had access only to the engraving. The arrangement of the central figures--the Madonna and Child and the little Saint John the Baptist, who kisses the Christ child's feet--is inspired by Guido Reni's Madonna and Child with Saint John the Baptist (Paris, Louvre). Their orientation indicates that the present artist knew Reni's painting firsthand. The direct connection to Reni, who was in Rome from 1601, along with the popularity of small-scale, intimate works on copper there in the early part of the century, suggest that the present work was made in the Italian capital around 1620-1630.