The castle of Popkensburg was built in the thirteenth century, probably commissioned by Jan Popkensborch. In the fourteenth century the estate was owned by the lords of Borssele and subsequently by the lords of Veere. In 1468 the castle and the domain were split. Maximilian of Bourgondy rebuild the castle in 1553 and in 1558 it was auctioned and sold to Philibert van Serooskerke and Arend van Valckensteyn. Both noblemen were loyal to the King of Spain, thus sparing Popkensburg during the Spanish occupation of Middelburg in 1572-74. In 1612 the town of Middelburg acquired the castle, selling it ten years later to Walter Fourmenois. Upon his death in 1653 the property was inherited by his sister Catharina, wife of Pieter Boudaen Courten. In 1679, both the castle and domain, existing of gardens, orchards and woods, were reunited by Johan Boudaen Courten. After the death of his granddaughter Anna Sara Boudaen, wife of Jacob van Citters, Popkensburg was inherited in 1781 by her son Jacob Verheije van Citters. He was the last inhabitant of the castle, between 1800 and 1823. In 1863 the deteriorated buildings were auctioned, and in 1863 it was torn down.
The castle of Popkensburg has been depicted multiple times over the centuries. A print of circa 1696 shows the castle, its surrounding buildings and the tall trees on the immediate premises as rendered in the present painting. In addition, pigments, canvas and technique of painting point to a date of circa 1700 or slightly later.