Friedrich Augustus, only legitimate son of Elector Friedrich Augustus I 'The Strong' and his consort Christiane-Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, married Archduchess Maria Josepha, daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, in Vienna in 1719. In 1733, he succeeded his father as Elector of Saxony under the name of Friedrich Augustus II and was crowned King of Poland, as Augustus III, in 1734.
For a similar miniature in the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, see M. Olausson [ed.], Europeiskt Miniatyrmåleri, Stockholm, 1994, illustrated in colour pl. 14. See also R. Michaelis, Gemäldegalerie Berlin. Die Miniaturen des 18. Jahrhunderts, Bönen, 2012, pp. 114-115, illustrated p. 115, and exhibition catalogue Unter einer Krone, Dresden, Castle, 1997-1998, p. 298, no. 542. The prototype is a pastel by Anton Raphael Mengs of 1745 (illustrated in H. Marx [ed.], Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister Dresden, Cologne, 2005, II, p. 626, no. 2289).