This remarkable and iconic concept of a lotiform mandala has articulated petals that close to form a lotus bud. First conceived in Northeastern India during the Pala Period (9th-13th centuries), very few examples remain from the period and are generally of smaller size. A revival was sparked in China during the early 15th century inspiring splendid gilt bronze examples during the Yongle period. The construction is a technical tour-de-force, with the stem containing an iron armature and mechanically joined to the seperately cast base; for a smaller and incomplete example in the Pan Asian Collection, see P. Pal, The Sensuous Immortals, 1977, p. 96-97, cat. no. 57.