Although the shape of the face and style of the headdress are similar to other small gilt-bronze bodhisattvas of the Liao period, the costume is different. The lotus throne and the headdress relate to those of a figure in a Japanese collection, dated 939 A.D., in the Five Dynasties period, illustrated by Matsubara, Chugoku Bukkyo Chokoku Shi Kankyu, p. 302. See, also, the figure with related headdress and seated on a similar socle supported on the back of an elephant, illustrated by S. Matsubara, Chugoku Bukkyo Chokokushi Ron, vol. 3, Tokyo, 1995, pl. 801b.