RUYSCH, Frederik (1638-1731). Thesaurus anatomicus primus [-decimus]... Het eerste [-tiende] anatomisch cabinet... Amsterdam: Jansson-Waesberg (part I and X), 1721 and 1716, Joannes Wolters (parts II-IX), 1702-1715.
4o (229 x 180 mm). 10 parts. 40 (of 42) engraved plates (7 folding) (lacks 2 plates in part 6, supplied in facsimile). 18th-century half calf (rebacked, old spine laid down). Provenance: Johann Gottfried Zinn (1727-1759), German anatomist and botanist (signature); Celle, library of the College of Surgeons ("Bibliotheca Colleg. Chirur. Cellens" old ink stamp on verso of first title).
FIRST EDITION of parts II-X. Garrison-Morton 389; Heirs of Hippocrates 617 (1726-1744 edition); Norman 1875; Wellcome IV, p. 599.
RUYSCH, Frederik. Thesaurus animalium primus... Het eerste cabinet der dieren... Amsterdam: Joannes Wolters, 1710. Engraved additional title, title printed in red and black, and 7 engraved plates (3 folding). (Blank portion of title with tape repair.) FIRST EDITION. Heirs of Hipporates 616 (1725 edition); Norman 1876. -- [And:] RUYSCH, Frederik. Operum anatomico-medico-chirurgicorum index. Amsterdam: Jansson-Waesberg, 1725.
Probably the most original artist in the history of anatomical preparations, the anatomist, Frederik Ruysch enjoyed making up elaborate three-dimensional emblems of mortality from his specimens. These fantastic, dream-like concoctions constructed of human anatomical parts are illustrated in the Thesaurus on large folding plates mostly engraved by Cornelis Huyberts, who also engraved plates for the painter Girard de Lairesse, illustrator of Bidloo's anatomy. In their dreamlike qualities many of the plates depicting the preparations reflect surrealism centuries before surrealism became fashionable. Ruysch's Thesaurus Anatomicus and his Thesaurus Animalium describe and illustrate the spectacular collections of "Anatomical Treasures" which he produced for display in his home museum between 1701 and 1716 using secret methods of anatomical injection and preservation.
Ruysch's unique anatomical preparations attracted many notables to his museum, including Czar Peter the Great of Russia, who was so fascinated with the preparations that he attended Ruysch's anatomy lectures, and in 1717 he bought Ruysch's entire collection, along with that of the Amsterdam apothecary Albert Seba, for Russia's first public museum, the St. Petersburg Kunstkammer. Over the years most of the dry preparations in St. Petersburg deteriorated or disappeared, but some of those preserved in glass jars remain. A few later specimens by Ruysch, auctioned off by his widow after his death, are also preserved in Leiden. Because most of the preparations did not survive, Ruysch's preparations, and his museum, are known primarily from these publications.
Ruysch's methods allowed him to prepare organs such as the liver and kidneys and keep entire corpses for years. He used a mixture of talc, white wax, and cinnabar for injecting vessels and an embalming fluid of alcohol made from wine or corn with black pepper added. Using his injection methods Ruysch was the first to demonstrate the occurrence of blood vessels in almost all tissues of the human body, thereby destroying the Galenic belief that certain areas of the body had no vascular supply. He was also the first to show that blood vessels display diverse organ-specific patterns. He investigated the valves in the lymphatic system, the bronchial arteries and the vascular plexuses of the heart, and was the first to point out the nourishment of the fetus through the umbilical cord. Ruysch's discoveries led him to claim erroneously that tissues consisted solely of vascular networks, and to deny the existence of glandular tissue.
Thesaurus animalium first appeared in ten parts published in Amsterdam between 1701 and 1716. The Edell copy consists of the original printings of the second through tenth parts published from 1702-1716, together with a reprint of the first part published in 1721 with three additional plates, and an index to the entire work which appeared in 1725. Also bound in the volume is the first part of Ruysch's Thesaurus Animalium Primus (1710)--the only part published. Garrison-Morton 389; Impey & Macgregor (eds) The Origins of Museums (1985) pp. 55-56; Norman 1875; Rosamond Purcell & Stephen Gould, Finders, Keepers (1992) (chapter 1 reproducing spectacular color images of Ruysch's preparations from Czar Peter's Wunderkammer, and Leiden); Roberts & Tomlinson pp. 290-98;