An inscription on the reverse of this painting identifies the central figures as Kunga zhonnu ('Youthful Bliss') Father-Mother, together with their retinue of eight deities, all of whom are special protectors of the Karma Kagyu School of Tibetan Buddhism. This subject is not known in India and was likely brought into the Karma Kagyu School by the 2nd Karmapa, Karma Pakshi (1204-1283), who came from a Nyingma family background. Karma Pakshi is responsible for bringing many Nyingma deities into the Karma Kagyu School, such as the special form of Mahakala known as Bernagchen. This protector, Youthful Bliss and consort, is most often associated with Bernagchen as a retinue figure and part of his five deity retinue. For two related examples, see G. Béguin, Art ésotérique de l'Himalaya: La donation Lionel Fournier, 1990, pp. 145-147, cat. no. 83 and N. Bazin, Rituels tibétains, 2002, p. 114, cat. no. 56.