The species of baboon depicted is papio hamadryas, sacred to Thoh, god of wisdom and learning. They vanished from the wild in Egypt during the Middle Kingdom, but continued to be imported from the south for use as temple mascots or watch dogs. For recent discussions see nos. 55-56 in Kosloff, ed., Animals in Ancient Art from the Leo Mildenberg Collection, and no. 83 in Arnold, An Egyptian Bestiary.