This esoteric form of Vajrapani holds various implements as symbols of the five Buddhist teachings emanating from the Tathagathas. The sculpture is one of a set that was in the Baoxianglo (Pao-hsiang Lou), a former palace and temple of the Qianlong Emperor's mother. Compare to another form of Vajrapani in the set bearing the same inscription in W. Clark, Two Lamaistic Pantheons, 1965, p. 56; and another closely related example of a form of Manjushri, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, cf. G. Béguin, Dieux et Démons de l'Himâlaya, 1977, cat. no. 214.