Two earlier fragmentary examples that are an "Archaic Arrowhead Blossom Carpet" discussed by Christopher Alexander, (Foreshadowing of 21st Century Art. The Color and Geometry of Very Early Turkish Carpets, New York and Oxford, 1993, p.191 and a Turkish pile rug illustrated by Friedrich Sphuler, (Oriental Carpets in the Museum of Islamic Art, Berlin, Munich, p.203, pl.60). Both examples play with the visual illusion created by positive and negative space.
This is a concept used by draftsmen in the 16th century court nakkashhane. It can be seen on Iznik tiles (Alexander, op cit., p.191). Textiles of the same period can also be seen to play with the illusion of differing planes of colour through design. A 16th century short-sleeved kaftan in the Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul, whose design originates from earlier damasks, has an equally optical challenging effect, (Nurhan Atasoy et al., Ipek, The Crescent & the Rose, Imperial Ottoman Silks and Velvets, Istanbul 2001, p.65, pl.21.)
A similar rug to the present lot but with a weaker border design was sold at Rippon Bosewell, Wiesbaden, 20 May 2006, lot 151.