For a discussion of the Official School of hard-stone carving, see Moss, Graham, Tsang, A Treasury of Chinese Snuff Bottles, Vol. 2, Quartz, no. 258 and the several subsequent examples which are all of the school. In this extraordinary example from the legendary Martin Schoen Collection, a popular subject for the School is masterfully re-composed, presumably prompted by the generous space available on the large, flattened main side. It is one of the most impressive bottles of this subject known from the School. See H. White, Snuff Bottles from China, pl. 19, nos. 1-4, for further examples of similar agate snuff bottles in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum.
The combination of a monkey and horses forms the rebus Mashang fenghou ('May you immediately be conferred the rank of Marquis'), while the lingzhi fungus and rocks represent longevity.