Richard, C.A. et Cie., Paris. The business was established in Paris in 1848 as Lemaître & Bergmann. A London branch was opened in 1857 and in 1867 this became Richard & Co. of 24 Cannon Street. Their trademark is R and C with an entwined snake between. The stamp R & Co without this trademark was used for clocks retailed, but not manufactured by the company.