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Born at Marseille in 1808, Honoré Daumier (d. 1879) is best known as a painter and caricaturist, working as an illustrator for such humorous and satirical periodicals as Charivari and La Caricature.Daumier was a tireless opponent of the monarchist principle and lampooned both the decline of the reign of Louis-Philippe and the cult of Napoleon. His sculptures were inspired by the three-dimensional caricatures of Dantan and began modelling figures such as Ratapoil ,(c.1850). His caricatures of Louis-Philippe in 1832 earned him a prison sentence, while his reverence for the earlier Napoleonic ideal won him a precarious immunity during the Second Empire. Ratapoil,which satirised the Bonapartist conspirators who overthrew the Republic of 1848-1852, was not cast in bronze until long after Daumier's death. Some of his works are now regarded as tentative forerunners of Expressionism. His chief sculptural works, which broke free from all the academic conventions of his time, include the series of 36 busts of French deputies.