The Japonaiserie style practised in 19th century Europe, was derived from but seldom directly imitative of Japanese works of art. Although Japanese porcelain and lacquer had been imported since the 17th century and decorative motifs from them had been used by European craftsmen and designers, no Japanese cult comparable to Chinoiserie arose. The opening of Japan to the West in the 1850's, after the trading agreement was signed in 1858, precipitated a flood of laudatory literature on the country. The first European exhibitions of Japanese art were held in Europe in in 1854 and 1862. Imports after this time of Japanese works of art poured into Europe inspiring European craftsmen in a multitude of mediums.