Charles Talbot was educated at Oxford, graduating in 1704 before receiving the Lambeth degree of LL.B. Talbot was at first destined for the Church, but, by the advice of Lord Cowper, exchanged divinity for law, and was called to the Bar in February 1710. In 1719-1720 he represented Tregony, Cornwall in parliament and in the parliaments of 1722-7 and 1727-32 he represented Durham. On 29 November 1733 he succeeded Lord King as Lord Chancellor, and was sworn of the Privy Council. In the same he he was raised to the peerage as Baron Talbot of Hensol, Glamorganshire and took his seat in the House of Lords.