Henry Pelham Fiennes Pelham Clinton (1785-1851), elder son of Thomas Pelham Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle, and his wife Lady Anna Maria Stanhope, fifth daughter of William Stanhope, 2nd Earl of Harrington, was born on 30 January 1785. He succeeded to the dukedom at the age of ten, his father having held the title for just over one year prior to his death on 17 May 1795. Henry was educated at Eton where in 1829 he founded a scholarship which bears his name. In 1803 during the Peace of Amiens he embarked on a continental tour, but was taken prisoner on renewal of hostilities and detained in France for four years. Upon his return to England he almost immediately married, on 18 July 1807, a great heiress, Georgiana Elizabeth (1789-1822), daughter of Edward Miller Mundy of Shipley, Derbyshire. He was created lord-lieutenant of Nottingham two years later and a knight of the Garter in 1812, later in that same year becoming steward of the forest of Sherwood.
His temperament and political inclinations were conservative in the extreme, and he opposed parliamentary reform and catholic emancipation, which position gave rise upon occasion to some unpopularity. This culminated on 10 October 1831 when a mob in Nottingham burned his mansion to the ground in consequence of his having ejected some of his tenantry; and the Reform Bill occasioned his loss of his rights as commissioner of Sherwood Forest. He continued to add to his holdings, purchasing Worksop Manor, one of the finest estates in England, and Hafod Estate in Wales, and in later years published several tracts. He died at Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire, on 12 January 1851.