Four-armed figures of Manjushri represent a rare iconography; compare other examples in the collection of the State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad, illustrated in R. Thurman and M. Rhie, Wisdom and Compassion, 1996, cat. no. 30; in the British Museum, London, see W. Zwalf (ed.), Buddhism, Art and Faith, 1985, cat. no. 308; and in the Berti Aschmann Foundation of Tibetan Art, see H. Uhlig, On the Path to Enlightenment, 1995, cat. no. 67.