Starting in the Yuan Dynasty, the authority of Mongol rulers had become closely associated with Tibetan Buddhist or Lamaist rituals, culminating in masterpieces of Tibeto-Chinese art created during the first half of the 15th Century. The Ming Emperor Yongle (1403-24), a devout Buddhist, commissioned gilt bronzes bearing his reign mark both for personal religious practices and as gifts for Tibetan emissaries. Created in the Imperial ateliers in Beijing, they are unsurpassed in technical mastery of casting, ornamental detailing, chasing, and gilding; for another closely related figure of Vajrapani in the Berti Aschmann Collection, see H. Uhlig, On the Path to Enlightenment, 1995, p. 107, cat. no. 59; and another in the Chang Foundation, Buddhist Images in Gilt Metal, 1993, p. 144f, cat. no. 65.