Compare a similar example sold in our Hong Kong rooms, 6 November, 1997, lot 1068, together with an elaborated version depicting the four images of a decomposed head, a severed head, a skull and the vase of life. Another elaborated version bearing a Yongle mark (1403-24) is in the British Museum, London, see W. Zwalf (ed.), Buddhism, Art and Faith, 1985, pl. 307, pp. 211, where the author notes that a khatvanga can symbolize the 'Thought of Enlightenment' and might have been used for a rite of identification with a particular god.