Sultan Abdulhamid II (1876-1909) was known to be extremely fond of cigarette smoking. Not only did he find it enjoyable, but it also provided a recently increased source of revenue for the Turkish nation! This is evidenced by the large number of smoking attributes included in the Paris sale at the Galerie Georges Petit, 27 November 1911. Each of the cigarette cases was of a different design. Many were variations on a theme with his initials either in Arabic or Roman characters, or with a tughra. Others had more innovative designs, such as one which had a map of the railways of Turkey on the cover, again set in precious stones! For further details please see Les Bijoux de S. M. le Sultan Abd-ul-Hamid II, Paris, n.d.(1912).