PUBLISHED: W. M. Hawley, ed., Tsubas in Southern California (Los Angeles: Japanese Sword Club of Southern California, 1973), no. 1362.
Robert E. Haynes and Frederick Martin, Arms and Armour of Ancient Japan (Los Angeles: Southern California To-Ken Kai, 1964), no. 145.
There is little doubt that this is the work of artists from the Higo area but which school is in question. The cup shape and semi-circular row of indentations on each side of the nakagoana indicates the work of the Hirata Hikozo school of Higo, but this style of mark was used by both the Kanshiro and Misumi Koji schools, as well as by a number of amateur artists working in the Higo area.