Guangmu Zuntian is also known as Virupaksa, the Guardian King of the West; and a deity who 'observes everything that happens in the kingdom', cf. L. Frederic, Buddhism, Paris, 1995, p. 247.
The first two characters Heshuo from the inscription is a Manchu term for 'Prince'. Although it is not possible to determine which Prince Zhuang commissioned these paintings as there were several during the Qing dynasty, from the Ming style of the painting it is possible to conclude an early Qing period dating. As such, the identity of the devotee is more more likely to be Prince Zhuang, a brother of the Kangxi emperor, whose Manchu name was Boggodo (1650-1723).
The present painting is part of the Shuilu pantheon and the image was a symbolic representation when placed on a wall during Buddhist rituals. Compare the paintings of this genre, the first depicting Guanyin amid four Bodhisattvas, dated to the tenth year of Shunzhi (1654), commissioned by Li Ying, the head monk at the Da Xing Temple, sold in these Rooms, 5 November 1997, lot 1077; and another hanging scroll painted with the five manifestations of Buddha, dated to the nineteenth year of Wanli (1592), sold in these Rooms, 3 November 1998, lot 1034.