Philipp Ernst Schindler II, the son of a porcelain painter of the same name at Meissen, worked himself at Meissen about 1740-1750. In 1750, he moved to Vienna and became director of painting at the Imperial porcelain factory in 1777. Schindler appears to have been allowed to work as an enameller for gold boxes from the 1760s. For further information on Schindler, see C. Truman, The Gilbert Collection of Gold Boxes, Los Angeles, 1991, no. 136, pp. 393-395.