Philip (1683-1746), born and raised in France as Duke of Anjou, was a grandson of Louis XIV, the Sun King (see following lot). Louis XIV proclaimed him King of Spain in 1700 after the death of Philip's great-uncle Charles II 'the Bewitched'. The prospect of a union of the crowns of Spain and France under the house of Bourbon so alarmed the other European powers that it precipitated the War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1713. Philip ruled as Felipe V until 1724 when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis I. After the sudden death of his son in the same year, Felipe had to resume the throne and reigned until his death in 1746.
Portrait miniatures depicting Felipe V are rare. One is in the Gilbert Collection, London (illustrated in S. Coffin/B. Hofstetter, The Gilbert Collection. Portrait Miniatures in Enamel, London, 2000, no. 93), and more iconographical information on this sitter can be found in M. Moran Turina, La imagen del rey Felipe V y el arte, Madrid, 1990.