Although two separate delegations, one from the shogunal government and the other from the Saga and Satsuma fiefs in Kyushu, had organised Japanese displays at the Paris Exposition of 1867 (the year leading up to the Meiji Restoration), the Vienna World Exhibition of 1873 marked the new Meiji government's first official and concerted participation in a global exposition. More than 500,000 yen (nearly one percent of national resources) were devoted to the Japanese displays and on the advice of a German professor of chemistry it was decided that in view of the country's low level of industrial development they should be devoted to technically refined decorative arts, thus appealing to a European taste for exotic goods already kindled by the earlier French exhibition. Bronzecasters from all over Japan, and especially Tokyo (the new capital) and the provincial centres of Kanazawa and Takaoka responded magnificently to the challenge, adapting the existing traditions of bronze manufacture for temple fittings and flower containers to produce an impressive range of outsize exhibition pieces that combine exaggerated features borrowed from early Chinese work with a wealth of exotic decoration. For another large-scale bronze by this artist see Comune di Milano, Kinko: I Bronzi Estremo-Orientali dalla Raccolta Etnografica del Castello Sforzesco [Kinko: Japanese bronzes from the ethnographic collections of Castello Sforzesco] (Milan, Mazzotta, 1995), cat. no. 145, and for other early-Meiji bronzes see Joe Earle, Splendors of Meiji: Treasures of Imperial Japan, Masterpieces from the Khalili Collection (St. Petersburg, Florida, Broughton International Publications, 1999), cat. nos.1-3 (by Suzuki Chokichi) and 230 (a later huge koro by Hayashi Harusada). For a detailed study of early exhibition bronzes see Yokomizo Hiroko, Meiji shoki no hakurankai o kazatta kinzoku on metalwork shown at international expositions in the early Meiji period', Museum, 492 (March 1992), pp. 28-42 and for a more general account of Japan at the Vienna World Exhibition, see Herbert Fux et al., Japan auf der Weltausstellung in Wien 1873 (Vienna, 1973).