The hand modeling technique, pâte-sur-pâte, was first successfully produced at Meissen in 1878. In 1880 Ludwig Sturm, the new head of the painting department, became the overseer of production. Sturm encouraged a more lively and spirited approach to classicism. His influence is credited with greatly furthering this area of production. See B. Bumpus, Pâte-sur-Pâte, The Art of Ceramic Relief Decoration, 1849-1992, 1992, p. 179-189.