These vases appear in the 1844 catalogue of the London 'Artificial Stone' manufacturer Austin & Seeley, engraved and listed on page 3 as 'Leaf vase with tall stem'. Felix Austin went into business making artificial stone in 1828, made from Portland cement, broken stone, pounded marble and coarse sand (The Builder, 1868). He encouraged leading architects and designers to work for him. Around 1840 he entered into partnership with John Seeley. In 1841 they published their first catalogue: 'Collection of Ornaments at Austin & Seeley's Artificial Stone Works for Gardens, Parks, and Pleasure Grounds, etc' from their address in New Road. The firm continued in production until about 1872.