A very similar gilt-bronze bear dated to the Western Han dynasty, formerly in the collection of Senator Hugh Scott, Washington DC, was included in the exhibition, Ancient Chinese bronzes and gilt bronzes from the Wessen and other collections, Eskenazi Ltd., London, July 1980, no. 22, where the present figure is noted. It is very likely that these two gilt-bronze bears were originally part of a set of four intended as mat weights. For a full discussion of mat weights see Michelle C. Wang, et al., A Bronze Menagerie: Mat Weights of Early China, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, 2006, where other bear-form weights of larger size (15.7 and 13.7) in The Cleveland Museum of Art and the Saint Louis Art Museum respectively, are illustrated, pp. 88-9, nos. 5 and 6. The authors discuss bear imagery during the Western Han and the bear's associations with "military prowess, shamanism and immortality" (p. 87).