Mount Meru (also known as Sumeru), is the cosmic mountain that is regarded as the axis of the universe, and the dwelling place of the gods. Compare a rare cloisonné enamel Mount Meru mandala, dated to the Wanli period, in the collection of the Pacific Asia Museum, illustrated in The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art, Chicago, 2003, p. 175, no. 42. Also illustrated, p. 173, no. 40, is a Qianlong period Meru mandala in gilt copper from the collection of the Musée Guimet.