The mandarin duck is a symbol of marital fidelity and has been used extensively in both two- and three-dimensional art in China for the domestic and export markets. A pair of similar ewers in the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, are illustrated by W. R. Sargent, The Copeland Collection, Salem, 1991, pp. 182-3, no. 87. A single ewer and cover is in the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels, exhibited Chinese Export Porcelain, Hong Kong, 30 November 1989 - 27 February 1990, pp. 92-3, no. 24. Another was sold in these Rooms, 19 June 2001, lot 407.