AUSTRIA AT THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1862. Catalogue prepared by Prof. Dr. Jos. Arenstein 1862. Page 4 records in class 13 of the Austrian members of the International Jury C.E. Kraft as senior machinist Vienna. In class 13 were included philosophical instruments and processes depending upon their use, which included theodolites such as this example and other optical instruments by many Austrian opticians and other makers. E. Kraft & Sohn awarded a gold medal in 1845 in Vienna, bronze in 1854 in Munich and bronze in 1855 in Paris. He is recorded as a maker of all forms of surveying and other mathematical instruments, and his short biography with reports on instruments appears on page 58 of this paper, a photocopy of which is included with the lot.