According to J. So, Eastern Zhou Ritual Bronzes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections, 1995, no. 86, the shape of this vessel is distinctive to Warring States sites in Shandong province. The author illustrates two larger vessels of this shape, both with larger ring handles and covers, fig. 86.1 (32.9 cm.), from Shandong Zhucheng Cangjiazhuang, 1 of 2, and fig. 86.2 (39.5 cm.), from the collection of Dr. Paul Singer. Both can be seen to have plain bodies. The author proposes that the decoration of the present piece is "likely the results of later reworking." Two smaller (7 and 6 inches high) plain vessels of this shape, also with covers, are illlustrated by M. Loehr, Relics of Ancient China from the Collection of Dr. Paul Singer, The Asia Society, New York, 1965, p. 67, pl. 69.